Anti-fascist Organisation – the Union Left in the Lodz ghetto – the Left was embracing mainly youth, who were acting in secrecy in the so-called “fives” (five-strong groups). Till 1942 the Left was headed by Zula Pacanowska, later by Hinda Barbara Beatus. Other well-known members are: Samuel Erlich (Stefan Krakowski), Natan Radzyner, Arnold Mostowicz. Their actions were focusing on sabotaging work for the invader.
The term was created within the framework of the project Zapisywanie świata żydowskiego w Polsce [recording the Jewish environment in Poland], whose author is Anka Grupińska, a well-known Polish journalist and writer, specializing in the modern history of the Polish Jews. The project, initiated in 2006 by the Museum of the History of Polish Jews, consists in recording interviews with Polish Jews from all generations.