Polish Army in the USSR, 1944 (AP in the USSR) – an operational compound and formation centre of the armed forces on the territory of the USSR created on 16 March 1944 under an agreement of the Union of Polish Patriots wit the Soviet government. It was created by the development of the Polish I Corps of the Polish Armed Forces in the USSR. The political authority was exercised by the main board of the Union of Polish Patriots. Operationally, it was subject to the commander-in-chief of the Red Army and, from 29 April 1944, to the commander of the 1st Belorussian Front. The AP in the USSR consisted of 3 organisational elements: the 1st Polish Army (the so-called active, field army), the supplementing centre (renamed to Sztab Formowania i Uzupełnień, and then to Główny Sztab Formowania) and the Polish Guerrilla Staff (PSzP).The active army consisted of, i.a., infantry divisions: the 1st (named after T. Kościuszko), the 2nd (named after J. H. Dąbrowski) and the 3rd (named after R. Traugutt); moreover, the 1st armoured brigade (named after the Heroes of Westerplatte), the 1st artillery brigade (named after J. Bem), the 4th anti-tank artillery regiment, the 1st Fighter Regiment “Warszawa”, and later other entities were formed, i.a.: the 4th, 5th and 6th infantry divisions, armoured corps, anti-aircraft artillery division, cavalry brigade and 3 artillery brigades. The commander of the army: General Z. Berling; size of the army: 43–107,000 soldiers (April–July 1944). In the absence of Polish officers to serve in the Polish units, more than 4,600 of Soviet officers were involved. Quarters: Sumy, Żytomierz, Kiwerce. The AP artillery (2 brigades and 6 regiments) participated in the Brest-Lublin operation of the 1st Belorussian Front, supporting the Soviet forces with fire while breaking the German defence of the Turija River, and then in pursuit of the Bug River and the crossing of this river. On 3 June 1944, the Union of Polish Patriots and the AP in the USSR complied with the State National Council which pursuant to the decree of 21 July unified the AP in the USSR with the People's Army into the uniform Polish Army. The AP command was taken over by commander-in-chief General of the Polish Army M. Żymierski who renamed the active army (field army) the 1st Army of the Polish Army (armies of the Polish Army from 1944 to 1945). On 8 August, he limited the powers of the commander of the former AP in the USSR to matters directly related to the commanding of the 1st Army.
- Zbiniewicz F. Armia Polska w ZSRR, Warsaw 1963;
- Kaczmarek K. Druga Armia Wojska Polskiego, Warsaw 1978.
The content of this entry has been prepared on the basis of the source materials of the Polish Scientific Publishers PWN.