Sword and Plough Movement

The ‘Sword and Plough’ Movement (Miecz i Pług): conspiratorial military organization. It was established in October 1939 by the group of pre-war military men and national Christian activists. Leon Poeplau was the commander in chief. After his arrest in July 1940, the organization was not as lively as before. It was resuscitated in 1942. Anatol Słowikowski, the new leader of the organization, was cooperating, behind the back of his co-members, with the German Defense Forces since the second half of 1942. His secret collaboration was discovered in September 1943. Słowikowski was executed. In 1942-1943 the ‘Sword and Plough’ united with other organizations: Military Organization ‘Wolves’(Organizacja Wojskowa ‘Wilki’), Union of the Pro-Independence Insurgents (Związek Powstańców Niepodległościowych), the Defenders of Poland Corps (Komenda Obrońców Polski), Secret Military Organization ‘Gryf Pomorski’ (Tajna Organizacja Wojskowa ‘Gryf Pomorski’). In March 1944, the commander of the Polish Home Army (Armia Krajowa) prohibited ‘Sword and Plough’ from being incorporated into the Polish Home Army. Nevertheless, some members of the ‘Sword and Plough’ joined the National Armed Forces which through the consolidation action became part of the Polish Home Army. ‘Sword and Plough’ had a unit comprised of young people called ‘Youth Movement’ (‘Młody Nurt’) and issued a newspaper ‘Sword and Plough.’

The term was created within the framework of the project Zapisywanie świata żydowskiego w Polsce [recording the Jewish environment in Poland], whose author is Anka Grupińska, a well-known Polish journalist and writer, specializing in the modern history of the Polish Jews. The project, initiated in 2006 by the Museum of the History of Polish Jews, consists in recording interviews with Polish Jews from all generations.
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