Tarbut (Hebrew for culture): a Zionist school organization. It was established in 1917, but soon it was abolished by USRR authorities. The organization continued its activity in the countries in Middle-East Europe, especially in Poland (since 1922). 183 primary schools, 9 middle schools, 72 kindergartens, 4 teacher colleges, 1 school of agriculture and 4 evening schools were established in Poland. Tarbut also published magazines and handbooks. In Tarbut schools the lessons were conducted in Hebrew and the curriculum covered biblical and contemporary Hebrew literature, sciences, the Polish language, as well as technical and vocational subjects.

The term was created within the framework of the project Zapisywanie świata żydowskiego w Polsce [recording the Jewish environment in Poland], whose author is Anka Grupińska, a well-known Polish journalist and writer, specializing in the modern history of the Polish Jews. The project, initiated in 2006 by the Museum of the History of Polish Jews, consists in recording interviews with Polish Jews from all generations.
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