-(Hebr. the ninth of Av) – a day of mourning and repentance commemorating the destruction of the First and the Second Temple in Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar (587/586 BCE) and Titus (70 CE). On this day, all-day fasting and partial morning are mandatory (leather shoes must not be worn, no washing or bathing is allowed, no Torah studying is permitted, and the tefillin are put on only after the afternoon prayer). Texts recited/read in the synagogue include the Book of Lamentations and kinot mourning hymns, bewailing the destruction of the Temple and many centuries of suffering of the Jewish people.
Za: Tomaszewski J., Żbikowski A., Żydzi w Polsce. Dzieje i kultura. Leksykon, Warszawa 2001.