The history of the Golub Jews can be divided into three periods. The first one lasted from the 18th century until 1920.  The next one ended in the fall of 1939. The last one is associated with the efforts of rebuilding the community after WWII. 

Jews began settling down in Golub in the 18th century. After 1772 the first elements of communal infrastructure began to evolve. In 1808 the Jewish kehilla had 44 members, in 1825 – 255, 1871 - 533, 1885 - 478, 1895 - 306, 1900 - 299, and 1910 - 247. Most likely in the end of the 1770s a small cemetery was established. Its area was extended twice in 1885 and 1900. In the 1820s Jews owned a synagogue nearby the Protestant church. In 1855 a construction permit for erecting a synagogue was acquired by the kehilla. Wolff Sultan and Josef Merdowski took seats in the first known board functioning roughly from 1845 to 1865. In the following decades representatives of the most affluent local  elites often were appointed to the board and council of representatives. In  1917  Max Dawid, Izrael M. Cohn, Josef Jacobson, Robert Riesenburger, Dawid Pottlitzer, Filip Cohn, Josef Wolff, Cesar Salomon, Jakub Harris, Adolf Jäger, Eliasz Mendelssohn were in the authorities.  Abraham Kiewe was elected chairman. On July 24, 1858 the kehilla’s statute was approved. The Jewish Community embraced Golub and 21 neighboring towns. From 1826 the first religion teacher was Beniamin Wolff. The last one who departed in 1920 was Abraham Kadisz (Kadisch). From 1855 Jewish children attended a new, two-standard Jewish school. In 1895 it was converted into  one-standard. At the beginning the number of school age children was high (187 in 1844), then it gradually decreased. 68 to 79 pupils attended school in the 1880s, but by the end of the 19th century – only 41. Finally in 1895 all children in Golub began attending one school, regardless of their faith. During the Second Polish Republic until 1924 311 people left the Jewish community. They were replaced with Jews from distant parts of Poland.  315 newcomers arrived until 1924.  One of the initiators of preserving the Jewish community in Golub was a local pharmacist, an ardent nationalist, Adolf Riesenfeld. He encouraged Jews from neighboring Dobrzyń on the Drwęca River to settle down in Golub. Until March of 1923 the Jewish community was administered by the authorities appointed yet during the war. The board appointed on March 9, 1923 included: Adolf Riesenfeld, Samuel Hirsch, Szmul Hermann. The “German” Jews exercised the power, leaning toward Zionism. The community was inhabited mainly by merchants, three- four industrialists (Juliusz Lewin, Szmul Czarnobroda – dairy owner, left for Warsaw in 1925), some intelligentsia, a pharmacist, Adolf Riesenfeld and their leader Eliasz Łochowski, two pharmacy assistants, two doctors (Margulies), teachers and clerks. The property of the Jewish community comprised:  the synagogue, the prayer house with a library, a ritual mikvah with a residential house, about ½ morgen of arable land by the court, a meadow by the Drwęca River, three gardens with the overall  surface of  7 ares and 62 square meters as well as a property of the „Stiftung Peretz” foundation.  Upon annexing the neighboring Jewish communities in Kowalewo and Wąbrzeźno in 1932 their property was officially taken over. A total value of the property in 1938 was estimated at 45,000 zloty (real estate), 3,000 zloty (personal property), debt of 500 zloty.  The community consisted of 301 members in 1939. During the interwar period there were neither the rabbi, nor the cantor or the mohel.  The prayers were most often performed by Szymon Mordka.  The synagogue’s attendant was Aszer Kiewe. Jewish children from the more affluent „German” homes attended „Privatschule”, and later studied in German junior high schools in Wąbrzeźno, Wągrowiec, Brodnica and Toruń. The remaining ones were taught in a seven grade elementary school.  Children from the more Orthodox homes attended two cheders in the nearby Dobrzyń on the Drwęca River. Golub Jews formed a few organizations. From 1888 a fraternity „Chewra Kadisza” (the board included Izydor Silberstein, Mosze Munter, Bernard Aronsohn). In 1920 „Krankverein” was established (the board in 1921 comprised: Juliusz Lewin, Izydor Tuchler, and Samuele Hirsch).  The followers of Zionism formed the Jewish Youth Association „Sionistischen Literatur Verein” and the Jewish Cultural-Educational Association “Tarbut”. The Gymnastic-Sports Association „Makabi” operated for some time. Besides managing the sports activity it also run a library. Most of the events organized with participation of Jewish population were accompanied by performances of the Jewish band „Jutrznia”. Local merchants Jude Eisyk, Jakub Bielawski, Aron Kohn founded the Merchants Union. Similar in character was the Union of Retailers and Minor Merchants. It embraced 14 members.  During the Polish-Soviet War of 1920 Golub was seized by the Soviets. On August 13, 1920 local Jews: Sally Lewin, Todor Tuchler, Izydor Tuchler, dr Joska Tuchler, Hans Sachs, Jakub Kallmann, Teodor Moszkowski were arrested on charge of spying for the Soviets. Local authorities vouched for their loyalty. After three months of arrest, thanks to an intervention of the General German Consulate in Poznań, they were sent to Germany, where they were exchanged for Poles confined there. Five returned to Golub.  Dr Tuchler and H. Sachs remained in Germany. Journalists working for the regional press „Głos Wąbrzeski”, „Gazeta Wąbrzeska”, „Słowo Pomorskie” fostered anti-Semitic attitudes. The local parish priest, rev. Ignacy Charzewski made his anti-Semitic opinions public. He recalled a case of alleged ritual murder of a four-year-old Gypsy that was to be committed on October 26, 1926 in Dobrzyń on the Drwęca River.  Against such background two days long attacks on Jews took place in Golub and Dobrzyń.  Flusberg, the main defendant escaped abroad.  Anti-Semitic riots took place in Golub and Dobrzyń in June 1939. Fifteen Jews were beaten up, 124 windowpanes were busted, and anti-Semitic slogans were shouted. When Golub was occupied by the Nazis on September 7, 1939 350 Jews of Dobrzyn on the Drwęca River and several from Golub were arrested. They were taken to Bydgoszcz, and starting from October they were gradually shot down in the vicinity of  Bydgoszcz. Subsequent arrests took place on Oct 14, 1939. A group of 230 people, including 30-40 from Golub were detained. Some of them were taken away to an undisclosed direction. Thirty five families (107 people) were ordered to show up at the Main Square of Dobrzyń on November 6, 1939. Seventy of them were chosen and sent to an unknown direction. The remaining ones  were to leave the town within 10 days. However, this decree was not executed. Jews remained in Golub and Dobrzyń for some more time. They were displaced at the turn of 1939 and 1940 or in the beginning of 1940. They were sent to the ghettos of  Mława, Płońsk, Szreńsk and Warsaw.  At least four Golub Jews survived the war and returned to Golub. Along with the Jews from Dobrzyń on the Drwęca River they formed a local branch of the Central Committee of Polish Jews. In 1946 it numbered 11 to 17 members, a year later from 9 to 15. In the years 1948-1949 – 9. In the following years only several people remained. In 1960 three Jews lived there[1.1].

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Footnotes
  • [1.1] State Archive in Bydgoszcz, Province Commitee of the Polish United Workers’ Party (PZPR) in Bydgoszcz, file. 51/XV/7, vol. 1; Zofia Waszkiewicz, Żydzi Dobrzynia i Golubia. Opowieść o świecie nieistniejącym, Golub-Dobrzyń 1993, passim; Zofia Waszkiewicz, Gmina Wyznaniowa Żydowska w Gołubiu w latach 19201-1939, [in:] Gminy Wyznaniowe Żydowskie w województwie pomorskim w okresie międzywojennym (1920-1939). Zbiór studiów pod red. Jana Szilinga, Toruń 1995, p. 109-132; Tomasz Kawski, Kujawsko-dobrzyńscy Żydzi w latach 1918-1950, „Wydawnictwo Adam Marszałek”, Toruń 2006, passim; Tomasz Kawski, Żydzi z Kujaw, ziemi dobrzyńskiej i Bydgoszczy ocaleni z Shoah. Przyczynek do poznania struktury społeczno-zawodowej, zmian osadniczych oraz migracji ludności żydowskiej w Polsce po II wojnie światowej, [in:] Wrzesień 1939 roku i jego konsekwencje dla ziem zachodnich i północnych Drugiej Rzeczypospolitej. Studies edited by. R. Sudziński and W. Jastrzębski, Toruń-Bydgoszcz 2001, p. 365-392.