The first Jewish families most probably settled in Nowotaniec and in the neighbouring Bukowsko between the 17th and 18th centuries. In 1765, the town was inhaited by 74 Jews. At that time they belonged to the Rymanów kehilla, however, before 1777, they gained independence. The Jews paid then merely 81 zlotys of toleration tax annually, what suggests that about 10-12 Jewish families lived there. At the end of the 18th century, four houses belonged to them.

The Jews of Nowotaniec got the permission to build a synagogue form the bishop of Przemyśl Jan Kazimierz Bokum in 1721. On 21 July 1745, the construction of a synagoguge was also approved by the bishop of Przemyśl Hieronim Sierakowski. In 1824, the Jewish community consisted of 84 people.

In 1870, there were 249 people in the Jewish community. The kehilla had a synagogue, a cemetery and a school, which 22 pupils attended. At the end of the 19th century, on the northern frontage of the market square, next to the Thalenberg family’s house, a synagogue of broken stone with metal roofing was conscructed. A brick mikveh was situated next to it. The Rochmesow family took care of the synagogue. In 1900, the Jewish community had 287 members. It was the least populated kehilla in the area, no wonder that it could not afford to have/mantain a rabbi. In Nowotaniec itself lived 148 Jews back then.

In 1921, the town was inhabited by 524 people, including only 42 Jews, who continued to manage their own community.

In 1939, Poland came under German occupation. Still in September 1939, Ukrainians organized a pogrom in the town. In the spring of 1942, the Jews from Nowotaniec were displaced to the ghetto in Bukowsko, from where they were taken to the camp in Zasław. In 1943, Germans killed 15 Jews in Nowotaniec, who were hiding in a forest near Orzechowa. Four of them were physically dismembered by horses, the rest were shot. The synagoguge was first devastated in September 1939, and for the second time in 1946, during further arsons and attacks of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army; finally, it was knocked down.