In the primary records Lubaczow appeared under the name Lubacew (Ljubacew), while since 1376 it was referred to as Lubaczow[1.1]. It was probably named after Lubacz who was primarily the owner of Lubaczow. The place was the part of Grody Czerwienskie belonging to the Ledzianie family, later the part of the eastern borderland of the Piasts’ State (Panstwo Piastow).

The place was well situated in the network of roads. Lubaczow appeared under the name Lobeschov in the Torunskie roads register from around 1350- 1360 as a trade hub located between Kruszow and Grodek. The organisation of Lubaczow as a territorial entity was already finished at the beginning of the XIII century which is shown in a reference in Halicko- Wołyński latopis under 1211 (in fact it was 1214) which was saing about a treaty between Paland and Hungary concerning Rus Halicka. Not only was this reference a certificate of longevity of Lubaczow but also a proof of its meaning; only a dozen or so of the centres in this region have been granted this honor.

Under the year 1225 Lubaczow was mentioned once again in latopisduring the conflict between the duke Danił Romanowicz and Leszek Biały with the duke Aleksander Wsiewolodysz, the ruler of Bełz and the duke Mscisław Mscisłowicz who ruled Halicz.

Around 1360 a fortified wooden castle was raised in Lubaczow. It became the centre of the management over royal properties during the partition of Poland (Polish: starostwo). In 1370 the city was passed under the Hungarian rule held by the Polish duke Władysław since 1372.

In spite of his short rule the duke is mentioned in the history of Lubaczow as an initiator and a creator of its lacation (obtaining the rights and privilages of a city). In 1376 Mikołaj Zybut from Lublin with the duke’s permission located the city Lubaczów here. Lubaczow obtained the rights of a city as the first place in the whole Belzka land. The city received the location according to the Magdeburskie law 80 lanowof land and numerous privilages. In the second part of the XIV century it possessed two parishes, one of the orthodox and one of the Latine rite.

In 1523 the king Zygmunt Stary confirmed the conferment of the Magdeburskie law at the same time granting it the right to weekly markets and three fairs a year; Lubaczow obtained some other rights in turns of 1533 and 1572. From now on it became an important trade centre.

The Luksemburski county being the part of the Dukedom, later Belskie voievodeship, functioned till 1561 when it was liquidated and inserted entirely to Belskie. The privilages for Lubaczow were confirmed by Zygmunt III Waza in 1589, in 1632 by Władysław IV, in 1669 by Michał Korybut Wisniowiecki, in 1720 by August II Sas and in 1748 by August III Sas. This meant that during this time the management of the city belonged to an elected 4- people city board consisting of 3 Poles and 1 Russian(Rusin). It was mainly responsible for the city administration and its economic life management. The board was electing a mayor from among its members. The juridical powers were held by The City Board (Polish:Lawa Miejska) led by a prefect.

At the beginning of the XVII century Lubaczow had over 1000 inhabitants. The Poles and the Russians (Rusini) lived here together with the Jews, the Ormians and the Turks. In 1630 there lived 850 inhabitants in127 houses , among them: 726 Christians (the Poles and the Russians) and 120 Jews, in 1662 there were 460 inhabitants and in 1677 only over 40. It was the period of disasters and wars. The city was burnt down in 1629, 1630 and 1635. In 1623 and 1641 tens of the inhabitants were killed by a plague. It also suffered from the Tatar, Kozak and Swedish invasion.

After the crisis in the second part of the XVII century and the collapse of the trade the city was recreated in the XVIII century. In 1762 only a number of the shoemakers reached 20. In the XVIII century it became the local economic centre with 2 mills, a brewery, a pub, a tanning house and a fulusz (small steelworks and glassworks). The trade was conducted on the weekly markets and fairs taking place 3 times a year when the merchants fom far away places were visiting the city.

As a result of the first partition of Poland in 1772 the whole region around Lubaczow was under the Austrian rule in Galicia[1.2]. Lubaczow belonged to the Belski district(cyrkuł) with a seat of powers in Zamosc and later to the Zolkiewski district (cyrkuł). The district was devided into 8 smaller districts and Lubaczow was a seat of powers of one of them, but only for 2 years.

In 1775 a reform of the districts was conducted which liquidated the Lubaczowski district among the others. It slowed down development tendencies of the city and its surroundings for many years. At the turn of the XVIII and XIX century Lubaczow had approximately 500 houses and 2500 inhabitants. After Jerzy Mniszech’s, the last governor of Lubaczow, death the authorities took into possession the lands of the district (starostwo). They created another administrative entity (Polish: ekonomia) which took over the management of the former royal properties (Polish: dobra kameralne). In the end they were sold into private hands in 1817- 1821. The Lubaczowskie property with the castle and numerous villages were bought by the count Karol Pawlowski. Their last owner was the count Goluchowski.

Another development took place in the second half of the XIX century. A post office and a hospital were built. Also, some barracks for the army were created here. A new Catholic brick church was raised and an Orthodox brick church. A construction of the new railway from Jaroslaw to Rawa Ruska in 1884 had a significant influence on the boost of the city economy.

In 1880 Lubaczow had 4425 inhabitants (1222 Poles, 8855 Russians, 1304 Jews). In spite of its significant development the city buildings were still mostly wooden in 1900. Only around the market square there were a few brick houses. In 1899 and 1904 some big fires consumed enourmous areas of the city including almost the then whole central part of an urban area.  Since the administrative reform in Galicia conducted in 1867 Lubaczow belonged to the county with the cetre in Cieszanow[1.3]

Just before an outburst of the I world war 6729 people lived in Lubaczow. On 6 VIII 1914 the Austrian- Hungarian Empire declared war with Russia. Lubaczow lying at the borderland  with the Russian Empire found itself within the reach of the military activities already in the first month of the war. On 11th September the 5th Russian Army took over Cieszanow and on 12th – Lubaczow.

The Russian occupation lasted 9 months starting from June 1915. Since 1915 the powers of the county sat in Lubaczow. Officially, the seat of powers was moved back to Lubaczow on 1.01.1923. Among them were the governor of the former royal properties (Polish: starosta),the board of the county and the department of the county.  ‘Starosta’was a clerk appointed by the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the board was a stating body and the department of the county was a managing body.

In the first years of the independence a military commissioner led the management of the borough. The first after war census (1921) showed that there were 5303 inhabitants in Lubaczow, among them 2991 Poles, 1793 Russians (Rusini) and 519 Jews. There were 2 common schools in the city, one for men and one for women. Besides, there were created: a private junior high, a public vocational school, a reading room and ‘Poswita’. In 1927 the members of the board were elected. It included 16 Poles, 16 Russians (Rusinów) and 16 Jews.

After the last elections before the war in January 1939 the board consisted of 9 Poles, 4 Jews and 3 Ukrainians. After the outburst of the war but before the invasion of the Germans on Lubaczow the city was the target of 5 bomb attacks. On 14th September it became the backstage of the military activities of 21st division of the Mountaineers Infantry led by the general Jozef Kustron who initiated a concentric march towards Cieszanow- Oleszyce- Lubaczow. Its aim was to open a retreat way for the Krakow Army. That was also were the troops of the Lublin Army tried to break through.

There were two big battles next to Oleszyce, other two next to Narol and many minor fights. With the legal force of the special decree of the Highest Board of  The Union of Socialist Russian Republics (Polish: ZSSR) the inhabitants of Lubaczow became the citizens of the Soviet Union and experienced the occupational terror: arrests in 1939 and deportations in 1940. In two big actions on 10th February and 13th April 1940 a significant part of the local intellectuals was transported to Syberia.

The border of the German and Soviet occupational zones ran through the Lubaczowski county. On 22nd June 1941 the German occupation began. It brought intensified terror: the mass execution in the wood Niwki, the ghetto creation at the end of 1942 and the Jews extermination at the beginning of 1943, numerous arrests of Polish people along with the transportations to concentration camps and to enforced labor places.

Already in the first period of the Soviet and later German occupation the Union of Armed Forces (Polish: Związek Walki Zbrojnej) functioned in Lubaczow. At the end of 1992 the post of the State Army (Polish: Armia Krajowa, AK) ‘Lusia’ was organised in 1944 the Lubaczowski district. Its commanding officer was Zdzislaw Zathey. In the frame of the district a guerilla troop was created- 4th company 19th regiment (Polish: p.p.)AK which took part in the fights with the Ukrainian nationalists and in the ‘Storm’ action (Polish: akcja ‘Burza’).

In summer 1944 the Red Army troops arrived in Lubaczow and on 22nd July it conquered the city. However, the liberation did not mean the end of military problems in Lubaczow. At the end of the occupation the Ukrainian Nationalists Organisations (Polish: OUN) and the Ukrainian Uprising Army (Polish: UPA) structures were activated. On 25-28.04.44 all the Poles left Lubaczow searching shelter on the western bank of San. The AK troops put up resistance to the UPA.

After the front line passage practically the whole district was conquered by the UPA. Not before the war had finished the Polish Army troops were directed here straight from the front line and together with the local milicia, including some former AK soldiers, initiated resistance against the UPA. Following the Polish- Soviet treaty resettling the Ukrainian population to the Soviet Union started already at the end of 1944. Next, in 1947 during an action ‘Wisla’ a lot of the Ukrainians were relocated to so called regained lands (ziemie odzyskane). Theresettlers from beyond the easterh border and the families which came from other regions were located in the abondened area.

After the liberation Lubaczow was severely destroyed, devastated and depopulated. The district was reactivated in the second half of August 1944. In 2nd half of the 50s the city started to liven up and then extended quite quickly. A few schools were built, a cultural centre (1961), a shopping mall, a building of the District National Board, a bank and some other buildings. Since 1960, after the Building Cooperative had been created first cooperative housing estates were raised. In 1957 the Milk Manufacture was created and in 1958 the Leather Products Manufacture was set in motion. The latter took up the old barracks on Kosciuszki St. After 1990 private entrepreneurship developed, many private businesses and manufactures were created.

In 1945-1991 Lubaczow was a seat of the Lviv Archdiocese (moved here from Lviv), officially occuring under the name of the Lubaczow Archdiocese. In 1992 the Zamojsko- Lubaczowska Diocese with a seat in Zamosc was brought into being. On 2-3 June 1991 the Pope John Pall II visited Lubaczow. Since 1999 the Lubaczowski district appeared again on the map of Poland in the shape from 1975. 

 

Bibliogrphy

  • Słownik geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego i innych krajów słowiańskich, Tom V, Warszawa 1880-1914, p. 370
  • Kłos S., Lubaczów, Oleszyce, Cieszanów, Narol, Horyniec Zdrój i Roztocze Południowe: mały przewodnik dla turystów i krajoznawców, p.15
  • Pękala E., Ziemia lubaczowska: przewodnik, Rzeszów 2009, p.14
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Footnotes
  • [1.1] Słownik geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego i innych krajów słowiańskich, Volume V, Warszawa 1880-1914, p. 370
  • [1.2] Kłos Stanisław Lubaczów, Oleszyce, Cieszanów, Narol, Horyniec Zdrój i Roztocze Południowe: mały przewodnik dla turystów i krajoznawców, p.15.
  • [1.3] Pękala Ewa, Ziemia lubaczowska: przewodnik, Rzeszów 2009, p.14