In the regulation from 1596 the owner of the city gave the 13 years of lhota to the citizens, and to the Jews as well. In those times they already had there a house of a cantor, a house of a teacher, and a poorhouse. Most probably they aslo had three houses. In 1616 a gospel hall and the Jewish cemetery are first mentioned, from which with the owner’s consent, the Jews from the neighbouring village of Lipsko could bury the deceased. In 1635 there were a total count of 218 houses, including 50 which belonged to the Jews.

In Narol in the first part of the 17th century Mojżesz Kohen lived, he was a famous physician and mathematician. In 1648 the city was plundered by Chmielnicki’s Army, and the Jews from Narol and those who had hidden there, so about 20,000, were killed by them. The Jews had defended against them in the synagogue, they were captured by the Cossacks, who killed thousands of people and set the building on fire. They desecrated the religious texts by using the leather scrolls as materials for making shoes. Mojżesz Kohen had saved his life and went to France, where he became a rabbi in Metz. His son Towia Kohen, called Rofe (1653-1729) was court physician of the Turkish sultan Ahmed III. In the Maase Towja his biggest work he argued, among others, was with the theory of Copernicus.

In 1660 there were merely a total of 25 houses, including 5 Jewish houses. There is also a mention of a synagogue. Four years later 43 Jewish familis lived there, like 180 people, while the number of citizens of Narol came to 450 people. However, the city still was getting poor, because in 1692 there were only 28 Jewish families, and in 1752 only 29 houses, including 22 Jewish. In 1779, 287 Jews lived there.

The oldest synagogue in Narol dates back to the first half of the 17th century. It was made of stone with a bimah supported on four wooden pillars, reaching a celling. In 1870 the Jewish municipality consisted of 689 people and had three synagogues, and still the same cemetery. In 1880 806 Jews lived in the city. 20 years later 1,347 Jews lived in the city, they had only one synagogue, and a collective rabbi with the Jewish municipality of Lipsko, who during 1879-1900 was Salomon Reiman. The city was once more almost completely destroyed in the September 1914 by the Austrian Army.

In 1921 724 Jews lived in the city; they comprised 40.4% of all the citizens. To the Guild of Craftsmen belonged the local Poles and Jews. The Central Association of the Jewish Craftsmen in Poland, the Association of the Jewish Craftsmen Jad Charuzim, and the Cooperative Bank, called the Loan Association functioned.

At the beginning of Hitler’s occupation a part of the Jews from Narol hid in Rawa Ruska, which was situated in the Soviet occupying zone. In 1940 there was a labour camp for the Jews. In 1942 a part of the Jews from Narol had been killed there, the rest were dislocated to Bełżec.
The cemetery of the area of 0.75 ha. was completely destroyed during World War II. The Germans used gravestones to harden local roads.

Bibliographical note

  • Potocki A., Żydzi w Podkarpackiem, Rzeszów 2004.
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