In the 1860s, 4 Jews lived in Kośnica Wielka and belonged to the community in Cekinówka. In the 1880s and 1890s, their number increased to about 20. In 1852, 7 Jewish craftsmen were registered there. In 1853, the community maintained a wooden “prayer school” (prayer house) and its own rabbi - Wolko (Wolf) Chait, who received 5 silver roubles a year. The number of believers was 124 at that time.
At the beginning of the 20th century, there were about 800 Jews in Kośnica Wielka out of a total population of about 7,000. The Jews maintained two prayer houses and a cemetery. They also owned a pharmacy, four manufactory stalls, a mill; they traded in flour and grain. There was a Jewish school.
In the 1920s, a Jewish kolkhoz was organised in Kośnica Wielka and a Jewish school reopened.
During World War II, Kośnica Wielka was incorporated to the territory of Romanian Transnistria. In 1942, Romanian occupation authorities sent all local Jews to concentration camps.
Even after the war, several Jewish families lived here. However, in the 1990s. There were no more Jews here, the old buildings of the village did not survive, and the brick synagogue building on the main street was demolished. The only remaining evidence of the Jewish history of this place is the Jewish cemetery with tombstones from the 19th and 20th centuries.
- Łukin W., Dymszic W., Chaimowicz B., 100 jewriejskich miestiecziek Ukrainy. Istoriczieskij putiewoditiel. Wypusk 2. Podolia, Sankt-Pieterburg 2000, ss. 504–505.