Markuszów was first mentioned in 1317. At that time, the duke Władysław the Short (Lokietek) moved Markuszów from the Polish Law under the Środa Śląska Law. It was done at the request of Dzierżek- a Cracow canon. The town was granted its town charter on 13 November 1317 in Cracow. The town of Markuszów was first named – Markuszowice. In 1330, Markuszów was under Magdeburg Law. The town was under the rule of the Markuszowski family (a branch of the Firlej family) until 1521. After 1521 Markuszów was under the rule of the Firlej family.
From the beginning of its existence, Markuszów had to compete with nearby towns of Kurów and Lublin. For that reason, the development of the town of Markuszów was considerably limited. Markuszów was mainly a stopping place on a trade route leading from Mazovia to the eastern part of the Republic of Poland. After Piotr Firlej died in 1557 Markuszów was inherited by Andrzej Firlej. In the second half of the 15th century about 600 people lived in Markuszów. At that time the town became a very important center of Calvinism. In 1589, Markuszów was owned by Jan Firlej.

In 1608, the brick Holy Spirit Church and a hospital (a shelter) were erected.  In the second half of the 17th century, Markuszów was destroyed and plundered first by the Cossacks under Bohdan Khmelnytsky’s command and later by the Swedes. As a result of the wars in the 17th century, the population of Markuszów decreased amounting to 350 people.

The last owner of the town of Markuszów from the Firlej family died in 1667. The next owner of the town was John III Sobieski. It happened before John III Sobieski became the King of Poland. After the coronation, John III Sobieski had an influence on further development of the town of Markuszów. On the 25th of February 1686, King John III Sobieski certified the town rights of Markuszów and the town was granted new privileges. Two years later the town was struck by a great fire, which led to considerable destruction of the town. That is why, the town was exempted from payments and villeinage for the period of 8 years.

In the second half of the 18th century Markuszów was purchased by Kajetan Hryniewiecki, who belonged to the noble clan of Ogończyk. The town of Markuszów was granted new privileges by its new owner in 1765. The town flourished thanks to Kajetan Hryniewiecki.

In 1795, Markuszów was under Austrian rule, in 1809, it transferred to the Duchy of Warsaw, and from 1815, it belonged to the Kingdom of Poland. In 1797, Markuszów had a population of 495 people. The number decreased to 525 inhabitants in 1822.

During the January Uprising in 1863, the Polish insurgents fought against the Russian Army near Markuszów. In 1869, Markuszów was deprived of its town charter.

Towards the end of the 19th century, in the village which was then the base for  the municipal authorities and the municipal court, a brick parish church and a chapel as well as a synagogue, a sheltered home for the disabled and old people, an elementary school, a post office and a credit union. Also a agricultural machinery manufacturing plant was at work here and, apart from it, a windmill and two water mills operated in the area of the municipality. The Broniewski family was the last owner of the estate, until the 1938 parceling out of land.

Before World War II , Markuszów had a population of about 3,000. After the war the number decreased to 988 inhabitants. Markuszów was liberated from the Nazi occupation by the Soviet Army on 23 July 1943.
 

Bibliography

  • Markuszew [in:] Słownik geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego i innych krajów słowiańskich, Warszawa 1885, v. VI, p. 133
  • S. Łowczak, Burzliwa historia Markuszowa, Markuszów 2001, p. 6.
  • S. Warchoł, Nazwy miast Lubelszczyny, Lublin 1964, p. 134. 
Print