Jews started to settle in Strzelce Opolskie the First Silesian War and the Peace of Breslau signed on 1742.  

The owner of the Strzelce Estate, Count Karl Samuel Colonna, allowed craftsmen (including a group of Jews) to settle by the Krakowska Gate. The first recorded Jewish resident of Strzelce was Solomon, brought to the town in 1749.  

The driving force for the development of the Jewish community was the Emancipation Edict proclaimed on 1812. At the time of the proclamation of the edict, 14 Jewish families lived in Strzelce Opolskie, in 1828, the town had 112 Jewish residents (8% of the total population), in 1845, their number had increased to 140 (6.6% of the total population). 

The local synagogue was built in 1850 on the south side of erstwhile Nowy Rynek (New Market Square). It replaced a previous house of prayer which in turn was converted into a school. 

In 1880, there were 509 Jews living in Strzelce Opolskie (11% of the total population). The turn of the 20th century saw increased emigration of Upper Silesian Jews to major urban centres within Germany. This trend also applied to Strzelce Opolskie. Later, their numbers started to decline due to migration. In 1932, the town had 145 Jewish residents (1.5% of the total population); a year later, their number decreased to 114.  

The community's existence was brought to an end by Nazi rule after 1933, although until 1937 Jews here had additional protection in the form of the 1922 Polish-German Convention (among other things, the Nuremberg Laws did not apply). 

During the so-called Kristallnacht of 9/10 November 1938, the synagogue was set on fire and numerous Jewish properties were vandalised. The census of May 1939 showed 70 Jews in the town. The Strzelce Jews were deported to the Theresienstadt ghetto on May 20, 1942.