The first remark concerning Łaszczów is dated 1549. This was the date of locating a town called Prawda on the land of the village Domaniż by Aleksander Łaszcz, the castellan of Czersk. The town has been called Łaszczów since 1553. That year was also important for its history as King Zygmunt August granted then a privilege to the town. The privilege allowed the townspeople to fell trees in the royal forests. Aleksander Łaszcz fenced the town with defense walls and ordered to build two gates there: the Tomaszowska Gate and the Tyszowiecka Gate.

In 1577, Aleksander Łaszcz pledged a half of the Łaszczów territory for the amount of 250,000 florins to Jan Zamoyski. In 1584, after Łaszcz’s death, the town property was inherited by his three sons: Jan, Aleksander and Marcin.

At the turn of the 17th century Łaszczów was an important centre of the Polish Reformation movement. There was an Aryan church and a printing house (open until 1630). In 1603, as a result of Piotr Gorajski’s efforts, the town received a privilege from King Zygmunt III, granting the right to hold markets and fairs there.

In the 17th century the number of Łaszczów inhabitants increased. The population in 1630 numbered 422. In 1635, Katarzyna Łaszcz, Aleksander’s wife, became the owner of a part of the town’s area.

In the 17th century the town development was hindered by fires and military march-pasts. In 1648, the Cossack army burnt some of the town buildings. Until 1674, a half of Łaszczów territory belonged to Zygmunt Gorajski – Piotr Gorajski’s son.

The Swedish army led by the general Sztenbok burnt Łaszczów down in 1702. In 1745, Józef Łaszcz, who owned the town at that time, ordered construction of a church and a college for the Society of Jesus, a male Catholic order. In 1754, due to another fire, which caused vast devastations, Franciszek Salezy Potocki ordered the townspeople to replace wooden buildings with brick ones.

In 1772, as a result of the Partitions of Poland, Łaszczów was annexed by Austria. In 1805 the town was in the Duchy of Warsaw, and in 1815 – in the Kingdom of Poland. In 1772, Stanisław Szczęsny, Franciszek Salezy Potocki’s son, inherited the land of Łaszczów. In 1776, Aniela Gembarzewska from the Liniewski family became the town’s owner.

In 1831 the Russian army established its outpost in Łaszczów. The outpost served as a base camp for soldiers preparing assault on a fortress in Zamość. In 1842, a hospital was built in Łaszczów. In 1843, Jan Szeptycki became the town owner. In 1869, Łaszczów was deprived of the municipal rights.

In 1902, the Łaszczów population amounted to 2600 people. In 1908, a fire brigade headquarters was established there. In 1914, during the battle of Komarów, Austrian and Russian armies fought against each other in

4. Łaszczów. Finally, the Austrian army took over the settlement in 1915, and they built a narrow-gauge railway from Uhnów to Włodzimierz Wołyński. Łaszczów was then a junction. In 1916, a Polish public school was established in the settlement. In the period of the Second World War, a German military police post was located in the school.

On 2 September 1920, a clash between the Bolsheviks and Polish soldiers took place in the settlement. In 1929 the Social-Christian Industrial-Craft’s Bank was established there. A Dairy Co-operative began to operate there in 1930.

During the Second World War, on 21-22 September 1939, the Polish army liberated Łaszczów from the German occupation for a short period of time. On 25 December 1942 the Germans pacified the settlement. Seventy five people died in this event. In June 1944, Łaszczów was burnt down by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (“UPA”).

Bibliography

  • Frykowski J., E. Niedźwiedź, J. Niedźwiedź, Dzieje miejscowości, p. 20. 
  • Januszczak M., W. Turek, Łaszczów i okolice, Kraków 2002, p. 20.
  • Małe ojczyzny w Unii Europejskiej, Przewodnik, p. 51.
  • Trzciński A., Śladami zabytków kultury żydowskiej na Lubelszczyźnie, Lublin 1990, p. 18.
  • Wiśniewska A., K. Wiśniewski, Łaszczów – dawniej i dziś. Dzieje miejscowości i regionu, p. 10. 
  • Z dziejów Łaszczowa [in:] „Zamojski kwartalnik kulturalny” 1996, no. 2 (48), p. 8.
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