The beginnings of Jewish settlement in Trzebiatów
were not easy.  In 1712 the fee for Jews
wishing to settle in the town was established at 8 thalers.  The report made by the mayor and the town
council, dated May 8, 1714, shows that a Jewish merchant had lived in
Trzebiatów for some time before the establishment of the fee.  However, Trzebiatów
was determined to be a town offering unfavorable conditions for Jewish settlers
due to the fact that their main source of income was the wool trade, and the
wool in that region was of poor quality. 
For this reason the Jewish merchant did not stay in Trzebiatow longer.   Abraham Joseph was refused permission to
settle in the town, not only because of the poor wool market, but also because
the town did not have any vacant houses into which he could move, and none of
the residents offered to invite him to live in their homes.   The situation must have changed, however,
because a document entitled ”On Jews in the Pomeranian Towns” of 1722 stated
that Joachim (Jochim) David lived in Trzebiatow, and his income was described
to be modest.  He received his privileges
on February 25, 1695, and most likely began to live in the town in 1721.  At the same time, local merchants pleaded not
to allow any more Jews to settle in the town, arguing that this would
negatively affect their own businesses and the plant manufacturing hosiery in
the town.  A list published in 1728
tracking fees paid by Jews for the protection by the government reveals that Jochim
David paid 14 thalers and 22 cents, and his son, David Jochim, paid 20 thalers and
12 cents.   Isaac, most likely hired by
Jochim David as a farmhand, paid 15 thalers and 14 cents. Jochim David also
hired a maid; she, however, was exempt from paying any fees.  As Trzebiatow was a town owned by the state, Jochim
David was also responsible for keeping the accounts and collecting the fees of
all other Jews living there.   A report
by the town magistrate of 1737 states that he estimated his estate to be worth
935 thalers, while Isaac Ephraim, who also lived in the town at the time, considered
that his property amounted to 2,310 thalers. 
If we compare the values of their estates to those of Jews living in
other cities throughout Pomerania, we notice that the financial situation of
the Jews in Trzebiatów was quite good.  
In 1749, when the royal government enacted a law requiring Jews to
supply the government with silver of certain value, three Jews living in
Trzebiatów had to meet its demands.  They
were: Isaac Ephraim, who paid 4 marks, David Jochim, who paid 3 marks, and the
widow of Salomon Jochim, who paid 1 mark. 
By 1752 there were 17 residents of Jewish descent in Trzebiatow, living
in four families.  Exact information
about these families is available in the reference book[1.1].  A table from 1764 presents the names of seven
Jewish families and the amounts they paid in exchange for their privileges[1.2].   A rescript issued on July 12, 1768 by the Pomeranian
Chamber (Pommersche Kammer) of Szczecin directed to the town magistrate of
Trzebiatow informed them of an upcoming meeting of the Jewish eldership, under
the leadership of local Jews.   Another
rescript, also issued by the Pomerania Chamber, but directed to the town magistrate
of Koszalin, confirmed that on January 6, 1772 a meeting of the Jewish eldership
would take place in Trzebiatow, and would be chaired by a local trustee named Moldenhauer.  This meeting was primarily focused on
electing new members to the eldership, and on discussing the fees paid for
privileges, an issue frequently complained about.   It is important to note that one of the
duties of the eldership, as it was in other provinces, was to keep a record of
the dates of circumcisions performed on Jewish boys, and the dates of births of
Jewish girls.  This information, similar
to the records for Christian baptisms, was used to determine the ages of
members of the municipalities.  In 1812,
when Jews were forced to take on Prussian citizenship and adopt official last
names, there were 12 Jewish families living in Trzebiatow.  They made up approximately 1% of the whole
population, which at that time numbered 3,600 residents.  The last names acquired by members of these
families are listed in the table[1.3].  The kehilla in Trzebiatow developed  similarly to Jewish municipalities in other
cities in Pometsnis.  By 1840 the number
of Jewish residents had grown to 143, and by 1871 it had reached its peak with
267 people.  In the following years the kehilla
systematically declined in membership, for many of its members were moving to
larger cities.   However, information
regarding the life of the Jewish community before 1880 is scarce.  We know that in 1876 eighteen members of the kehilla
owned property in the town.  Their names,
along with their occupations, are listed in the table[1.4].  In 1880 there were 212 Jews living in
Trzebiatow, while in about 1886 there were only 154.  They comprised approximately 3% of the total
population of the town, which numbered about 5,000 people at that time.   The kehilla had a religious school with
approximately 20 students.   There were
also two active charity organizations, Chewra Kadisza[1.5] and Israelitischer
Frauenverein[1.6].  Their goal was to aid those in need in the town
and in neighboring areas.  In 1893 the kehilla
was comprised of 38 Jewish families, and two years later of 37 families, which
translated into 114 people.  The number
of children attending the school first fell to 12, and later to only 6.   Seven Jewish children attended the middle
school in 1895.  The budget of the
kehilla in 1897 was 2,419 marks, of which 1,050 marks were allocated for the
teacher’s salary.  The names of both secular
and religious administrative clerks of the kehilla and of the charity
organizations who worked in these positions until the end of the 19th century
are listed in the reference book.  At the
beginning of the 20th century, in 1902, Trzebiatow still had quite a big Jewish
population consisting of 108 people.   At
that time, 6,600 people lived in the town.  In 1905, in addition to Szczecin, which was inhabited by 923 Jews in 1885, accounting for 0.9 % of the total population, there were kehillas in 22 towns in Pomerania. A relatively most numerous ones, counting between 600 and 1300 people, were located in Słupsk, Stargard Szczeciński, Kołobrzeg, Koszalin, Lębork, Świdwina, Szczecinek, Bytów, Pyrzyce, Pasewalk and Białogard. Hence, the kehilla in Trzebiatów was a small one. The charter of the synagogue dating from 23 July 1847 proves that such organization existed. The kehilla district covered the town of Trzebiatów as well as the following villages: Dargosław, Łatno, Uniestowo, Mołstowo, Niedysz, Karnice, Darżewo, Pustkowo, Trzęsacz, Rewal, Śliwin, Ninikowo, Skrobotowo, Gocławice (non-existent any more), Mojszewo, Cerkwica, Trzeszyn, Czaplin Wielki, Czaplin Mały, Borzęcin, Wlewo, Kłodkowo, Węgorzyno, Chomętowo, Sadlno, Drozdowo, Kusin, Lędzin, Niechorze, Skalno, Konarzewo, Rogozina, Bieczyno, Gorzysław, Bielikowo, Gosław, Mrzeżyno, Roby, Kępa, Ostrowo, Karcino, Sarbia, Gołańcz Pomorska, Siemidarżno, Lewice, Mirosławice, Gąbin, Żukowo. The charter of the synagogue of 1847 was updated in 1927 [[re:|R. T. Korek, Żydzi w Trzebiatowie (Jews in Trzebiatów), [in:] Trzebiatów. Historia i Kultura II (Trzebiatów. History and Culture II), ed. W. Łysiak, Poznań 2001, p. 112.]] Until 1913, both the number of members of the
kehilla, and its budget, remained steady. 
Only the number of children fell, with only four attending the
school.  For this reason, after S.
Zadikow left the kehilla, having been hired as its teacher, chazzan, and mohel
in 1907, the municipality did not hire anyone to replace him, and children’s
lessons were conducted by a teacher from Gryfice (Greifenberg), named Moses.  Two soldiers from Trzebiatów of Jewish
descent lost their lives on the fronts of World War I.  They were Carl Cohn and Ernst Rautenburg. Detailed
information about them is available in the reference book[1.7].  In the years following the war, the kehilla faced
financial difficulties caused by the need to renovate its synagogue and
cemetery.   The works were to cost
between 8,000 and 13,500 marks.  It is
worth noting that the number of members in the kehilla had significantly
dropped, and by 1924 was down to 60 people, 10 of whom paid taxes.   The kehilla made up less than 1% of the town
population.  In 1932 there were 50
members in the kehilla, but one year later the numbers really began to
fall.  At the beginning of 1935 there
were still 15 Jews living in Trzebiatow. 
Their names, addresses, and occupations or businesses run by them are
listed in the table in the reference book[1.8].  This information was confirmed by Brigitte
Ziegler, who also provided additional information[1.9].  The events of Kristallnacht also
touched Trzebiatów, and were equally tragic for the residents of this town as
they were for Jews living in other German cities.  Kurt Schwarz, a former inhabitant of
Trzebiatów, had witnessed persecution of the Jewish population as a child, and
his testimony regarding these events was printed in the ”Pommersche
Zeitung”  (Pomorze Newspaper) on November
24, 2001.  It can also be found in the reference
book[1.10].  Despite the fact that in time more than half
of the Jewish population of Trzebiatow immigrated to Berlin or other German cities,
during a census conducted in 1939 the city still had 21 Jewish residents.  Their names, dates of birth and addresses are
available in the table[1.11].  Some of these people left the town shortly
afterwards; however, those who were unable to leave were deported east on July
10, 1942.  Detailed information about
this transport is not available.  We also
know that at the end of August 1942 Lina (according to other sources Helene) Friedländer, nee Feibel, living at Lange Straße 62 (Długa Street; today Wojska Polskiego
Street)[1.12], was deported to Terezin
(Theresienstadt).  Nothing else is known
about her fate, just as the fates of other Jewish residents of Trzebiatow
remain unknown.  The names of seven Jews
originally from Trzebiatow but deported from Berlin in 1942, with the exact
dates of transport and the places they were taken, are listed in the table[1.13].  We know that Johanna Rewald, most likely born
on November 30, 1869, died in Berlin on November 15, 1942.

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Footnotes
  • [1.1] Gerhard Salinger, Zur
    Erinnerung und zum Gedenken. Die einstigen jüdischen Gemeinden Pommerns, vol.
    III, New York 2006, p. 835.

  • [1.2] Gerhard Salinger, vol. III, op.cit.,
     p. 835.

  • [1.3] Gerhard Salinger, vol. III, op.cit.,
     p. 836.

  • [1.4] Gerhard Salinger, vol. III, op.cit.,
     p. 836, 837.

  • [1.5] Jewish charity and funeral society –
    known as the Holy Funeral Brotherhood, which was responsible for male burials.

  • [1.6] Jewish women’s society who helped those in need and was responsible for
    female burials.

  • [1.7] Gerhard Salinger, vol. III, op.cit.,
     p. 838.

  • [1.8] Gerhard Salinger, vol. III, op.cit.,
     p. 839.

  • [1.9] Gerhard Salinger, vol. III, op.cit.,
     p. 839.

  • [1.10] Gerhard Salinger, vol. IV, op.cit.,
    p. 1190-1191.

  • [1.11] Gerhard Salinger, vol. III, op.cit.,
     p. 840.

  • [1.12] Fritz R. Barran, Städte-Atlas
    Pommern, second revised edition, Leer 1993, p. 122-123.

  • [1.13] Gerhard Salinger, vol. III, op.cit., p. 841.