Wiślica is one of the oldest settlement in medieval Minor Poland. The name comes from the river Vistula. The settlement was mentioned for the first time n the sources from 1135. Then Boleslav Krzywousty, under pressure of German emperor, was forced to cease supporting his son-in-law Boris against Hungarian domination. He left Wiślica in the lurch and destruction for Ruthenians and Kumans, what probably caused the settlement collapsed.

Mentions of the city successively appeared in the context of Mesco the Old. As a prince of the seigniorial quarter he conquered it and the three more burg cities of Sandomierz quarter and returned after a hard legal battlerefr:|Andrzej Grzybkowski (red.), Wiślica nowe badania i interpretacje, Warszawa 1997, s. 138]]. 

At the beginning of 13th century, Wiślica constituted important military and administrative centre. Wiślica’s castellans were affluent and significant clerks in Minor Poland. By the first middle of XIII century sixteen years long competition between princes Henry Bearded and Conrad Masovian and their sons Henry the Pious and Boleslav Kondratowicz took place. In battles was also took part mighty clans. What remained undestroyed after the clashes of princes, demolished Tatar invasion in 1241. Administrative centre was moved from the destroyed Wiślica to the Korczyna New Town.

It was probably during the reign of Łokietko, when Wiślica was given civic rights, however no documents remain which can prove it. We have first trustworthy information about location from 1345, when Casimir the Great prohibited tax collectors from collecting duty. But it is not impossible that Wiślica was located, according to the German law, by the middle of 13th century by Boleslav the Bashful. When the authority of Łokietko was powerful enough, he called together knight’s rallies to Wiślica, hence it gained all-Polish fame. In 1409 Ladislas Jagiełło issuing trappings confirmed Magdeburg law for Wiślica.

In town often took place nobility conventions, what caused Wiślica bloomed. The city is crossed by transit route from Ruthenia to Krakow and also from Prussia to Hungary. Wiślica quickly became a place of trade and craft, inns, mills and bakeries came into being, beer famous even on the king’s court [1.1]was produced.
By the first middle of 16th century, town numbered 3 thousand inhabitants, waterworks were build, guilds were created and people benefited from number of trappings granted by king.

Death of Stephen Batory was turning point. A that time, during nobility convention between Wiślica and Kocina in 1587 it was decided that Sigismund Waza would obtain polish crown instead of  Maximilian Habsburg. In 1606 new king was looking for shelter and support in Wiślicsa. Nevertheless, Nicolas Zebrzydowski organized sedition.

That civil war came to an end, as a last resort, by gradual decline of Wiślica[1.2]. By the first middle of 17th century town was afflicted by elemental disaster: fires and floods. As a consequence, in 1633 Wiślica was made by Parliament tax-free for five years.
 

After Swedish Wars(1655-1660) complete decline of Wiślica took place. By establishing two more markets, King John Sobieski did his best to save the situation in the town. Successive efforts to raise the town from downfall were undid by Poland's partition. Initially, Wiślica occurred in the Austrian annexation, and after 1815 within Congressional Kingdom boundary, and later on within Polish Kingdom.

After January uprising, it lost its civic rights, though it remained significant trade centre in the region.
Settlement was destroyed during the First World War. 

After the campaign, situation of inhabitants in several towns of Radom's District was really poor because their home towns were destroyed, inter alia in Wiślica[1.3]. During the first weeks of war 32 people were shot at the meadow near Wiślica. This event caused great fear toward German terror increased. All Jewish people were driven out in 1942. However, Wiślica's community had never reconciled themselves to German captivity. For this reason underground army was born. In revenge to committing acts of sabotage, Nazis applied mass repressions and executions. From August 1944 till January 1945 Germans created labour-camps, banding people together in barns and farm buildings. They were forced to work for Germans, among other things clearing the streets of snow.

In July 1944, on the territories liberated by partisans, so-called Pińczowska's Republic was established, with Wiślica included[1.4]. Absolute liberation from occupant hands took place from 12 to 13 January 1945.
Years of occupation brought thousands of casualties in that area. Just in Wiślica 3.5 thousand inhabitants(70%) were killed. Most of them there are Jews murdered in 1942 in Treblinka and people who took on try to save their neighbours, e.g. Klajnplaca, whom was hidden by Zenon Romański, Barucha with 4 years old daughter and five others shot on manure. Piter and Bronislav Kupisz were also shot for hiding three Jews[1.5].
Nowadays, Wiślica inhabits 680 people, mostly farmers. Into Wiślica commune come villages: Brzezie, Chotel Czerwony, Gluzy, Górki, Gorysławice, Hołudza, Jurków, Kobylniki, Koniecmosty, Kuchary, Łatanice, Ostrów, Sielec, Skorocice, Skotniki Dolne, Skotniki Górne, Szczerbaków, Szczytniki, Wawrowice i Wiślica.

The area that surrounding Wiślica conduces rest. There are beautiful forests, meadows and calmly flowing river Nida here. The enthusiasts for history can visit in Wiślica square marketplace dated on town location period and houses standing by it form 19th and 20th century.The oldest tenement house originates from 17th century. The most valuable monument is gothic collegiate church dedicated to Saint Mary the Virgin's Birth[1.6].

 

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Footnotes
  • [1.1] Andrzej Grzybkowski(ed.)Wiślica, new research and interpretations, Warsaw 1997, p. 140
  • [1.2] Henryk Obcowski, Turystyczna gmina Wiślica, Kielce 2008, s. 31.
  • [1.3] Krzysztof Urbański, Zagłada Żydów w dystrykcie radomskim, Kraków 2004, s. 58.
  • [1.4] Henryk Obcowski, Turystyczna gmina Wiślica, Kielce 2008, s. 32.
  • [1.5] Józef Wojtasik „Panek”, Oddział Specjalny PKB gminy Wiślicy 1941-1945, Kielce 1996, s. 7.
  • [1.6] http://www.wislica.pl/walory.html (15. II. 2010 r.)