The village of Ledziny was first mentioned around 1150-60. At the time, the hamlet belonged to the knight, Jaksa of Miechów, who gave it to the Benedictine monastic order. From 1242, it was owned by the Benedictine cloister and, in 1555, it was purchased by Baltazar Promnitz, the Bishop of Wrocław.

In the 14th Century, Lędziny came under Czech rule and shared the political fate of Silesia. From 1742, it found itself within Prussia.

During the inter-War period, the Lędziny region was the site of battles during the Silesian uprising. As a result of a referendum in 1922, Lędziny became incorporated into Poland.

In September 1939, Lędziny was occupied by the German army. Here, the Germans established labour-camps for Russian and Italian prisoners-of-war – these were sub-camps of the Łambinowice prisoner-of-war camp. In 1944-45, there was also a sub-camp of the Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp.

In1966, Lędziny gained city-status. In 1975, it was absorbed into the Tychy district but, in 1991, it once again regained it status as a city.