Settlement of Cruceburch was mentioned for the first time in 1252.
In 1253 Henry III, the Prince of Wroclaw, gave permission to the Order of the Teutonic Knights to set up a city in that place. They did not manage to set up the city and in 1274 Prince Henry established the city of Kluczbork under German law[1.1].
In 1327 Prince Wladyslaw Bytomski paid liege homage to a Czech king and from this moment Kluczbork was under Czech control and shared political lot with Silesia. In years 1331-1356 the city was in pledge for the Polish King Kazimerz the Great/Wielki. The city had embankment and a fortified castle in 1396 . In years 1428-1434 Kluczbork was occupied by Hussites[1.2]. Louis II Jagiellon (Ludwik II Jagiellończyk), king of Hungary and Bohemia, died heirless in 1526, and consequently, the Archduke of Austria Ferdinand Habsburg became the king of Bohemia. In this way Kluczbork came under the Habsburg control.
In 1528 the great fire ravaged the most of the city. In 1590 city’s defensive walls were build. During the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648) the city was pillaged and robbed by different armies (including tsarist army in 1634) [1.3]. In 1637 an epidemic killed almost the whole population of the city [1.4].
In years 1660-1671 Polish brethren found shelter in Kluczbork and organized here synods in 1663 and 1668[1.5]. In 1742 the city was incorporated to Prussia. In 1868 the first railway line: Wroclaw-Fosowskie was opened with a station Kluczbork. In 1908 a hydroelectric power station on the Stobrawa River was built.
In January 1945 the Soviet army took over Kluczbork. 16% of the city’s buildings were destroyed during the fighting[1.6].
- [1.1] B. Cimała, Kluczbork. Dzieje miasta, Instytut Śląski w Opolu, Opole 1992. p. 19
- [1.2] B. Cimała, Kluczbork. Dzieje miasta, Instytut Śląski w Opolu, Opole 1992, p. 36
- [1.3] B. Cimała, Kluczbork. Dzieje miasta, Instytut Śląski w Opolu, Opole 1992, p. 53
- [1.4] L. Straszewicz, Kluczbork. Studium geograficzno-ekonomiczne, Wydawnictwo Śląsk, Katowice 1970. p. 29
- [1.5] B. Cimała, Kluczbork. Dzieje miasta, Instytut Śląski w Opolu, Opole 1992, p. 56
- [1.6] D. Tomczyk, Wyzwolenie ziemi kluczborskiej przez Armię Radziecką w 1945 roku, Szkice Kluczborskie, Instytut Śląski w Opolu, Opole 1976. p. 35