Ari Ramon

Interlocutor name:
Interlocutor surname:
Joanna Król
Przemysław Jaczewski
Catalogue number:
Recording date:
1st October 2018
Recording location:
Recording duration:
Recording language:
Recording copyright:
POLIN Museum of the History of the Polish Jews
Holocaust Survivors

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Interlocutor biogram

Ari Ramon was born in Lviv as Ludwig Singer on 29 May 1939. His father, Immanuel Singer, was born in Podhajce and had a brother; his family leased manor farms in Galicia. He graduated from secondary school. He fought in the Polish-Bolshevik war; after his release from the army he became the head of the technical company “Wentyl” in Lviv - that is where he met Ari Ramon's mother, who was a clerk. He died in 1973 in Israel.

His mother, Nuomi Singer, came from a religious Jewish family. Her father was a well-builder; she had two sisters (Róża Reisler, who died before the war and Matylda Reisler) and two brothers (Jakub and Salomon).

Before World War II, Ari Ramon's father was a member of the Polish Army reserve, in case of the outbreak of war he was to defend the border with East Prussia. In 1939 he was sent to a prisoner of war camp, from which he managed to escape to Chełm. He worked in the German barracks. Ari Ramon stayed with his mother in the Lviv ghetto. They were taken out by his father's friends from the barracks and brought to Chełm.

The family initially lived with his father's friend, an electrician called Jastrząb in Chełm, then in Choszczówka. They said they were Polish Catholics; Ari Ramon's name was Kazimierz Borzęcki, his father’s name was Stanisław and his mother’s Stefania. His father worked in the Home Army in Warsaw.

During the Warsaw Uprising they escaped from Choszczówka and crossed the front line; they were evacuated to Lublin and from there they left for Chełm. After the war, his father worked in a brewery for some time and spent six months in prison. They settled in Sopot, and then in Gdynia, where his father was the head of the Joint office in Gdynia.

On 24 August 1950, they left Poland on a ship hired by Sochnut going directly from Gdynia to Haifa. After arriving, they were quarantined for one month, then stayed in an open camp for three months. Ari Ramon went to school in Jaffa, then in Holon. He studied mechanical engineering at the Haifa Polytechnic (graduated in 1962), and after graduation served in the army for 10 years as a professional officer (he ran a design office); he received an award from the Ministry of Defence. After leaving the army, he worked for the food industry, then as a freelancer; he spent several years in South Africa; he was a co-owner of an engineering company.

He visited Poland for the first time after 65 years.

Recording circumstances description

The interview was recorded at the POLIN Museum of the History of Polish Jews in Warsaw.

Recording summary

  1. Information on the interviewee’s family; 00:00:31
  2. The Lviv Ghetto; 00:03:17
  3. The war fate of his father; taking the interviewee and his mother out of the ghetto; 00:05:34
  4. Gestapo inspection in Jastrząb’s house; 00:07:54
  5. His father’s diaries; 00:10:00
  6. Obtaining false documents; 00:11:19
  7. Moving to Choszczówka; the interviewee’s father joins the Home Army; 00:12:42
  8. Source of income for the family; no suspicions about the interviewee's family; 00:15:45
  9. The interviewee's family’s camouflage techniques; 00:18:28
  10. The figure of major Lubczyński; saving Jews; falsifying documents; 00:20:12
  11. The documents of the interviewee's father; 00:23:19
  12. Hiding place under the floor; 00:24:33
  13. Information on the interviewee’s family from his father’s side; the manor farms; 00:26:16
  14. Galician Jews; 00:28:37
  15. Information on the interviewee’s family; 00:29:38
  16. Information on the interviewee’s father; his father’s national identity; 00:35:37
  17. Information on the interviewee’s mother; taking up surnames by Galician Jews; 00:39:05
  18. Information on the family of the interviewee’s mother; 00:43:11
  19. The situation of Jews in Galicia; Ukrainian anti-Semitism; 00:45:22
  20. Father’s work on the manor farm; 00:47:52
  21. His parents’ knowledge of foreign languages; his father’s education and work; the meeting of his parents; 00:49:16
  22. The interviewee’s memories of the war; 00:51:00
  23. Everyday life in Choszczówka; 00:58:55
  24. Lack of awareness of his Jewish origin when he was a child; 01:01:25
  25. Discovering his Jewish origin: summer camps for Jewish children; 01:02:12
  26. Return to school after the summer camp; the reactions of peers to the information about the Jewish origin of the interviewee; 01:11:19
  27. The reaction of the priest conducting religion classes to the information about the Jewish origin of the interviewee; 01:13:25
  28. Lack of Jewish education; lack of Jewish and Catholic traditions in the interviewee's house; 01:16:40
  29. The situation in post-war Poland; 01:20:20
  30. His father’s work in the brewery and his stay in prison; 01:22:43
  31. Activity in the Polish Home Army; 01:25:12
  32. The operation of recovering money for the Home Army; 01:27:15
  33. The Warsaw Uprising and the front line near Choszczówka; 01:31:23
  34. Building German fortifications in Choszczówka; the basement of the school in Choszczówka; 01:34:11
  35. Staying in the basement of the school in Choszczówka; 01:35:10
  36. Escape from the school; plans to cross the front line; 01:41:36
  37. Escape to the Russian side; his father’s interrogation; 01:46:04
  38. The road to Lublin; 01:49:36
  39. Stay in Lublin; meeting the uncle; the fate of the interviewee’s uncle; 01:53:28
  40. The fate of the cousin of the interviewee’s father; 02:01:19
  41. Arrival in Chełm; the fate of the interviewee's father after the war; 02:02:08
  42. His father’s work in Joint; living in Gdynia; 02:03:05
  43. Leaving Poland; 02:04:10
  44. His father’s work in Joint; 02:05:14
  45. The post-war life of his mother; 02:07:37
  46. His father’s stories about the war; a sense of threat after the war; 02:08:10
  47. Contacts with further family after the war; 02:10:13
  48. Suicide and the wartime fate of the sister of the interviewee's mother and her family; 02:14:54
  49. The interviewee’s mother’s siblings; 02:25:33
  50. Preparations to leave for Israel; 02:27:41
  51. His father's problems after the Polish-Bolshevik war; 02:30:27
  52. His father’s demobilization in the Home Army; 02:33:53
  53. The family’s surname during the war; 02:34:36
  54. Preparations to leave; the sea journey to Israel; 02:37:24
  55. Customs clearance; 02:40:46
  56. The sea journey to Israel; 02:42:32
  57. The camouflage techniques of the interviewee’s father; 02:45:08
  58. Arrival in Israel; quarantine; stay in an open camp; 02:51:43
  59. Living in Jaffa; studying at school; 02:58:11
  60. His father’s illness; 02:59:19
  61. The interviewee’s school in Jaffa; 03:01:53
  62. Moving to Holon; the beginning of junior high school; 03:03:29
  63. Studies at the Polytechnic; military service; 03:04:23
  64. Learning Hebrew; 03:07:51
  65. Learning at a Jewish school; religious identity of the interviewee in Poland; 03:09:14
  66. Patriotism; military service in Israel; social integration; 03:12:55
  67. An increase in the number of inhabitants of Israel; Jews in Iraq; 03:15:34
  68. The Six-day War; 02:21:23
  69. Thinking about Poland at the beginning of life in Israel; 03:32:52
  70. The influence of the Six-Day War on the March incidents in Poland; the political situation in post-war Poland; 03:33:48
  71. Post-war pogroms of Jews; post-war anti-Semitism; 03:36:57
  72. The arrival of Poles in Israel; the Polish commander of the interviewee; 03:40:07
  73. Learning Hebrew by the interviewee’s parents; the interviewee’s knowledge of Polish; 03:42:35
  74. The diary and testimony of the interviewee’s father in Yad Vashem; the interviewee’s interest in the history of Jews; 03:45:59
  75. The interviewee’s wife’s family; 03:47:31
  76. The interviewee’s parents’ work in Israel; 03:48:57
  77. The interviewee’s work after military service; 03:50:38
  78. Contacts with the family in Poland; 03:51:44
  79. War stories of the interviewee’s father; 03:54:37
  80. Interest in family history; 03:56:44
  81. Meeting a cousin, Tadeusz; searching for the family; meeting with a cousin from Australia and the fate of her father; 04:00:00
  82. Searching for his cousin, Tadeusz Belerski; meeting Tadeusz; 04:06:10
  83. Visits to Poland; 04:10:31
  84. Change of surname in Israel; 04:11:02
  85. The interviewee’s attitude towards Poland and Israel; 04:14:12
  86. The national-religious identity of the interviewee; memories of Poland and Poles; 04:16:16
  87. Cuisine as a cultural link; 04:20:18
  88. Honouring Major Lubczyński with the title of Righteous Among the Nations; 00:22:05
  89. Receiving the Home Army cross and books by the interviewee's father; 04:25:01
  90. The national identity of the interviewee's father; the post-war situation of Polish Jews; 04:29:07
  91. Visits in Poland; the interviewee’s family in Poland; 04:33:03
  92. Contemporary Jews in Poland; identity problems; 04:36:01
  93. The interviewee's attitude towards Tadeusz's search for family history; 04::40:25
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