The first historical record of Jews living in the village of Adamów dates back to 1827. At that time, there were already more than one hundred Jews living in the town, who constituted about 18% of the total population. This may indicate that Jewish settlement in Adamów began much earlier.

The Jews of Adamów were under the jurisdiction of the community in Kock.[1.1], though the village had close connections with Łuków as well. Toward the end of the 19th century, the Jewish population of Adamów, which had 500 members and its own synagogue[1.2] and cemetery, met all of the requirements needed to be granted full autonomy. In 1897 Adamów was inhabited by 664 Jews.[1.3]

The Jewish community quickly grew in size and prosperity. At the beginning of the 1920s, the Jews made up one-third of the total population of the town; according to the census from 1921, there were 664 Jews out of total population of 1,934.[1.4] Apart from the synagogue and cemetery, the kehilla also owned a ritual slaughterhouse and a mikveh.[1.5] In the years 1928-1930, J. Grynwald performed the function of rabbi.[1.6] The kehilla employed one teacher. Alongside private cheders was a Talmud Torah that provided education for the poorest boys in the town. During the interwar period, numerous political parties and organizations were active in the town, among which the most popular were the Zionist parties. In the 1920s the Zionist Organization and the Zionist-Orthodox “Mizrachi” Party had branches in the town.[1.7]

In September 1939 Adamów found itself under the German rule. In November 1940 the first mass execution took place, when 40 Jews were shot dead in the local Jewish cemetery. Apart from local Jews, people from neighboring localities and a group of Jews displaced from the town of Nasielsk were imprisoned in the Adamów ghetto as well.[1.1.7]

The liquidation of the ghetto began in mid-October 1942. More than 300 elderly and infirm people were shot dead in the suburbs of the settlement in a meadow situated to the west of the church. The victims’ bodies were buried in the field, approximately 500 kilometers away from the execution site in the direction of the village of Glinne.[1.8] Most of the remaining 1,724 people were displaced to the Łuków ghetto.[1.9] On October 26-27 and November 7-11, they were sent to the extermination camp in Treblinka along with the Jews from Kock, Wojcieszków, Stanina and other neighboring towns and villages. A small group of Jews who worked in the local labor camp remained in the settlement. The camp was ultimately liquidated in August 1943.[1.10]

Before the deportation began, a group of men escaped from the Adamów ghetto. They took refuge in forests in nearby Szczałb and Krzywda. They established a guerilla group that consisted of 40 people. It carried out actions against the Nazis and representatives of Polish local authorities who cooperated with the occupiers to organize the deportation (according to Encyclopedia of Jewish Life Before and During the Holocaust the group already existed[1.1.4]). The attack on a prison in Adamów during which a few dozen Jews were freed is one of the most famous actions conducted by the guerillas outside Adamów.[1.1.4]

Bibliography

  • Adamow, in: Sh. Spector, G. Wigoder (eds.), Encyclopedia of Jewish Life Before and During the Holocaust, 1, (2001), 20.
  • Adamów, in: G. Miron (ed.), The Yad Vashem Encyclopedia of the Ghettos during the Holocoust, (2009), 2.
  • K. Czubaszek, Żydzi Łukowa i okolic, (2008).
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Footnotes
  • [1.1] K. Czubaszek, Żydzi Łukowa i okolic, (2008), 28.
  • [1.2] Archiwum Państwowe w Lublinie, Urząd Wojewódzki Lubelski 1918-1939, Wydział Społeczno-Polityczny, sygn. 730; 1617.(State Archives in Lublin, Province of Lublin Office 1918-1939, Social and Political Department, catalog no. 730; 1617)
  • [1.3] Adamow, [w:] Encyclopedia of Jewish Life Before and During the Holocaust, t. 1, red. Sh. Spector, G. Wigoder, New York 2001, s. 20.
  • [1.4] Adamow, in: Sh. Spector, G. Wigoder (eds.), Encyclopedia of Jewish Life Before and During the Holocaust, 1, (2001), 20.
  • [1.5] Archiwum Państwowe w Lublinie, Urząd Wojewódzki Lubelski 1918–1939, sygn. 721; 1617.
  • [1.6] Archiwum Państwowe w Lublinie, Urząd Wojewódzki Lubelski 1918–1939, sygn. 1617.
  • [1.7] K. Czubaszek, Żydzi Łukowa i okolic, (2008), 30.
  • [1.1.7] K. Czubaszek, Żydzi Łukowa i okolic, (2008), 30.
  • [1.8] K. Czubaszek, Żydzi Łukowa i okolic, (2008), 174.
  • [1.9] K. Czubaszek, Żydzi Łukowa i okolic, (2008), 164–174.
  • [1.10] Adamów, in: G. Miron (ed.), The Yad Vashem Encyclopedia of the Ghettos during the Holocoust, (2009), 2.
  • [1.1.4] [a] [b] Adamow, in: Sh. Spector, G. Wigoder (eds.), Encyclopedia of Jewish Life Before and During the Holocaust, 1, (2001), 20.