The earliest historical mention of Biały Bór dates back to the end of the 13th century and states the foundation of a parish by Mściwoj, the Duke of Gdańsk. Since the beginning of the 14th century the town was under the rule of the Teutonic Order. In 1382 Biały Bór was granted Kulm law city rights by the Order confirmed by the Grand Master Konrad Zöllner von Rotenstein in 1395.

Development of the city in 14th century was possible due to the change of trade routes, which started going through Biały Bór, but also due to the weakening of Teutonic Order’s power. Later, numerous fires of city buildings contributed to the town’s decline. After the second peace of Thorn of 1466 Biały Bór belonged to the Royal Prussia, the exclusive property of the Polish Crown. The peace treaty stated the freedom of trade contacts on the territory of Royal Prussia. In 1772 as a result of the First Partition of Poland, Biały Bór was excluded from the Pomeranian Voivodship and incorporated into the territories annexed by Prussia.

In the 19th century, the agricultural development of the whole region of Western Pomerania had an impact also on Biały Bór. A new church was built and in 1878 railway came into the town.

After the World War I Biały Bór was included within a new German border province of Posen-West Prussia. During World War II, in the battle of the city of 1945, Biały Bór was a part of the mighty fortifications of Pomeranian Line. The city was captured on February 26, 1945; over 80% of the buildings in Biały Bór were destroyed.

Depopulated through the war, Biały Bór was repopulated with Ukrainians as a result of activities related to Operation Vistula of 1947. Nowadays, Biały Bór is a significant center for Ukrainian minority with dynamically operating Association of Ukrainians in Poland.