Bodzentyn is one of the many charming towns located in Świętokrzyskie Province that can boast a rich history. Its establishment and dynamic growth in the 14th through 17th centuries was the result of the activity of Kraków bishops who had ruled over these territories “from times immemorial.”[1.1] J. Wiśniewski wrote the following about the founding of Bodzentyn: “Bodzentyn owes a lot to Bishop Bodzanta Jankowski, Róża coat of arms, who relocated the town here, had a church built here in 1355 and named it Bodzentyn after his own surname.”[1.2]
It is difficult to say precisely when the town was established. Feliks Kiryk claims that it was possible for Bishop Bodzanta to found the town only after he was raised to the dignity of a bishop and that happened only after 1348, which is a date that we can assume was the earliest time that Bodzentyn might have been founded.[1.3] At the same time it should be noted that there exists a preserved copy of a 1355 document which states that the Bodzentyn church officials were endowed with appropriate land holdings composed of grounds from ten surrounding villages. The town itself already existed and this date should be regarded as the latest as far as establishing of Bodzentyn is concerned.[1.4] The abovementioned information indicates that the town of Bodzentyn was founded between 1348 and 1355.[1.5]
Numerous privileges granted to bishops and rulers ensured growth in the form of first craft guilds, and salt and butcher’s stalls. [1.6]. The following is their shortened list:
- 1370 – Bp. Florian Mokrski – granting the town grounds and a grassland;
- 1412 – Bp. Florian Mokrski – conferring the village of Tarczek on the town, as well as granting it the right to free deforestation in the Gózd forests;
- 1413 – Władysław Jagiełło – town privileges under Magdeburg Law and two fairs;
- 1468 – Kazimierz Jagiellończyk – three fairs;
- 1569 – Zygmunt August – a privilege exempting townspeople from paying customs duties on the land their owned;
- 1569 – Zygmunt August – a privilege exempting townspeople from paying any customs duties throughout the country, including bridge, dyke and pavement duties;
- 1585 – Bp. Piotr Myszkowski – exemption from paying sheaf tithes;
- 1587 – Bp. Piotr Myszkowski – granting a bathhouse along with a parcel to the town hall;
- 1598 – Bp. Jerzy Radziwiłł – a privilege exempting townspeople from paying grassland rents;
- 1611 – Bp. Piotr Tylicki – a privilege to produce and sell liquors;
- 1640 – Bp. Jakub Zadzik – a privilege to install young town’s residents in the Kraków Academy (in Bursa Jerozolimska, which was as a students’ dormitory);
- 1670 – Bp. Andrzej Trzebicki – a town hall with a clock.[1.7]
The last resident in the Bodzentyn palace was Bishop Kajetan Sołtyk who “was in charge of a sumptuous court and was always willing to entertain masses of visitors.”[1.8] The Bishop’s residence started falling into ruin and a slow economic collapse began with his death in 1788. When the state took over the church’s estates in 1789, Bodzentyn was deprived of a strong economic stimulus in the form of the bishop’s court.[1.9] Information about the times of palace’s splendor, its equipment and the extent of destruction was recorded in the inventories from 1644, 1668 and 1789.[1.10] Initially, the beautiful Renaissance building was turned into a granary and then into a military hospital that was in use until 1814.[1.11] Then, when it was left without any protection from the state or church it fell into ruin.
In the period when Bodzentyn was under the church jurisdiction (14th-18th c.) it developed very well, quickly becoming the center of the estates belonging to the Bishops of Kraków, and that guaranteed prosperity to its inhabitants as well as appropriately high profits to its owners.[1.12] Numerous privileges positively influenced the development of craft and trade. Researcher of Bodzentyn’s history, Artemiusz Wołczyk, in his work published as a typescript and called “Mały, groźny Bodzentyn” (English: “Bodzentyn, Small and Terrible”), refers to a 19th-century document he discovered and which brings closer the topic of the development of local crafts. He lists the following craft guilds:
- A carpenter’s guild with Bishop Jan Konarski’s privilege of 1510;
- The “Great” guild (multi-professional – J. S.) with privileges from Bishop Jerzy Radziwiłł of 1558, Bishop Jakub Zadzik of May 10, 1637 and Bishop Andrzej Trzebicki of January 18, 1670;
- A tailor and clothier’s guild with Bishop Piotr Myszkowski’s privilege approved later by Bernard Maciejowski in 1601;
- A slaughterer’s guild with Bishop Jan Zadzik’s privilege of 1637;
- A shoemaker’s guild with a privilege of 1470;
- A furrier’s guild with a privilege which was so decomposed that it was impossible to read out the date and the name of the person who granted it.[1.13]
According to the 1662 poll tax register, Bodzentyn was a middle-sized town (“civitas secundae classis”), but in terms of taxpayers it came before Daleszyce, Kielce, Kunów, Łagów, Opatów, Waśniów, Wąchock and Wierzbnik[1.14] Sandomierz and Opatów were the only towns that were bigger and more important,[1.15] but there was no competition for it in the immediate vicinity.[1.16] The situation changed in the 17th and the first half of the 18th centuries when an economic crisis could be observed in the town.
When the estates owned by the bishops of Kraków were intended for military purposes in 1789, Bodzentyn lost its title as a “clergy town” and the ban on Jewish settlement disappeared at the same time. The situation got worse with the predatory regime of the Austrian occupier. Polish authorities that were at power afterwards, especially those of the Congress Poland, despite their efforts, could not avert the deepening economic stagnation, which affected the whole country.[1.17]
The magnificence of Bodzentyn which had already been gone was manifested by the presence of the Bishop’s residence, the Holy Spirit Church, an old people’s shelter house, an elementary school and the town hall, which were all in decrepit condition.[1.18] Although impoverished and hit by cholera and typhoid outbreaks, Bodzentyn showed an upward tendency when it came to demography.
The town was troubled by financial difficulties, so its residents made some steps to change its image and functionality.
The first issue that was put forward was the construction of a new school, which was most probably opened at the time when a local parish was arranged here in the 14th century. It was situated in a building belonging to the church.[1.19] The town hall turned out to be another problem. It performed its function, being the seat of the Town Office, housing archives and serving as a storage room of the equipment belonging to guilds and the fire brigade.[1.20] Because it was out of use and in danger of collapse, it was demolished in 1826.[1.21] From that time on, the town’s authorities were forced to rent an office from local residents. There were unsuccessful plans to build a new town hall as well as attempts to arrange one in the Bishop’s palace.[1.22] The house of a brewery writer, located in the Bodzentyn estates, became the seat of the town hall.[1.23] A renovation was necessary in the old people’s shelter house but it was not carried out.[1.24]
Moreover, efforts were made to open a china and pottery factory, which was to be situated in an abandoned building of the bishop’s residence and the nearby deposits of clay were to be used for production. Ludwik Küntzl, an expert in the field of pottery production was brought to Bodzentyn in 1824.[1.25] A long-term contract was signed and he was obliged to set up a prosperous china and mirror factory and to employ 300 local people who were out of job. Despite the fact that he tried a lot, Küntzel was not able to fulfill the contract and he got into big financial trouble.[1.26] In the face of such a situation the authorities gave up, in 1824, on building the aforementioned factory in Bodzentyn. The initiative to complete Ludwik Küntzl’s work was taken up by: Bodzentyn’s residents: Walenty Zygadlewicz in 1830, August Schulcer, from Prussia, in 1833, and Gustaw Porzepczyński, a native inhabitant of Bodzentyn in 1837. [refr:| F. T. Rzemieniuk, Tworzenie się przemysłu ceramicznego w Bodzentynie w XIX w., „Rocznik Muzeum Narodowego w Kielcach” 1992, vol. 16, pp. 144-147]] However, all these attempts brought no results.
The ukase of June 1, 1869 introduced in the Kingdom of Poland a new division into towns and settlements. Under the ukase, of 41 towns belonging in that time to the Kielce Governorate, only seven retained their previous status. Unfortunately, Bodzentyn was degraded to the rank of a settlement.[1.27]
Bodzentyn entered the 20th century as a modest settlement, but with new opportunities. The town’s community was very active in the field of culture and education and it did a lot to improve living conditions. One of such initiatives was the establishment of a Fire Brigade Society on May 8, 1904, which was headed by Władysław Gąsiorowski.[1.28] Two years after the aforementioned organization was called into being, a Unit of the Polish Educational Society was opened. It had 72 members, including Rev. Aleksander Grabdziński and Henryk Latalski[1.29]
On June 20, 1917, Bodzentyn was damaged by a fire, “(…) which destroyed (the number is not given – author’s note) houses and facility buildings (…), two parish churches and the presbytery, Jewish synagogue, school (…), and a fire brigade shed. Three persons died and one child went missing (…). Apart from that, “Nadzieja” (“Hope”) loan fund, “Postęp” (“Progress”) store, Magistrates’ Court and the building of a town’s loan fund (…) along with the sum of 8,000 rubles all burned down. Several people who took part in extinguishing the fire and removing things from the buildings burnt themselves and they could not be helped because the pharmacy also went up in flames.”[1.30]
The fire consumed 198 property estates. As a result, 408 families were left without a roof over their head and with no livelihood.[1.31] Nevertheless, great efforts were taken to rebuild the settlement. In 1925, there were 430 houses and 3,123 inhabitants here, so there were on average seven people in one residential building.[1.32] Nine years later, in 1934, it numbered 475 houses and 3, 284 inhabitants, which, in total, came to seven people per one building as well.[1.33]
The collegiate church, after the fire left without the presbytery, ruins of the Holy Spirit church and ruins of the bishop’s palace were constant elements of Bodzentyn’s architecture.[1.34] A Catholic burial cemetery was situated near the market square. In the settlement there was also an animal burial site.[1.35] A Magistrates’ Court operated in the office rented by the municipal authorities at Roman Pałysiewicz’s, and then Michał Pałysiewicz’s, located on 3-go Maja Street. When the teachers seminary was closed in 1930, the court was relocated to the seminary’s abandoned building at Upper Market Square (Rynek Górny).[1.36] A post office, which, initially, was situated in the building owned by Roman Pałysiewicz, and then relocated to the office on Św. Ducha Street (by the church of the same name) operated in Bodzentyn from 1920 on.[1.37] A Cooperative Bank played a big role in the settlement. The Bank, as one of few institutions, had its own building put up in 1928 on 1-go Maja Street.[1.38] An old people’s shelter had provided help to Bodzentyn’s residents for ages. It was located in a parcel of 19 Morgen 8 rods, where there was a wooden building with one toilet, a barn with an extension for wood and toilets. All of the shelter’s equipment was renovated before 1926.[1.39] Apart from that, a police station operated in the settlement from the moment the national police was called into being. Its first seat was the municipality office, and then it was relocated to Edward Chrzanowski’s building at Lower Market Square (Rynek Dolny). Until 1945 it was located in Stanisław Kudliński’s office on 1-go Maja Street.[1.40]
A big hit among residents was a local restaurant owned by Moszek Szperling.[1.41]
The Bodzentyn Municipality Office had a modest piece of real estate composed of “a municipality wooden detention house in poor condition with five toilets (including two rooms occupied by a caretaker and three other used as detention rooms), a cow barn, stable, woodshed, barn and stone basement in good condition, which were used by a municipality clerk for his own and municipality office’s needs.” [1.42]
However, the most important building was the Municipality Office which is described in the 1926 and 1930 audit reports: “A wooden building in poor condition, eight rooms, one kitchen, one pantry, and one hallway (…). The building was the seat of the municipality clerical office and a meeting room (both occupying two rooms), municipality archives (two rooms), and there were also four rooms with a kitchen and a pantry which were all occupied by a municipality clerk.” [1.1.42] “The municipality clerical office occupies two rooms (one narrow hall and one smaller room) in an old private building intended for the Municipality Office. The furniture in the office is very primitive, assorted and insufficient (…).”[refr:| APK (Archiwum Państwowe w Kielcach), AGB (Akta Gminy Bodzentyn), file no. 2483, card no. 17.]] It was formed in 1779 and was used as the Municipality Office until the mid-20th century.[1.43]
Jewish residents of Bodzentyn had their own real estates as well. Alongside private houses there were also buildings that served religious purposes. However, most of Bodzentyn’s buildings were residential buildings. In all, there were 334 apartment buildings, including 262 (78.5%) belonging to Poles, and 72 (21.5%) owned by Jews.[1.44] The number of residential buildings included in this list is different than the number included in “Skorowidz miejscowości Rzeczpospolitej Polskiej” (“An Index of Localities of the Republic of Poland”) (425).[1.45] It is hard to explain why, but perhaps the reason for that was that the offices of public institutions, which were also inhabited (e.g. Municipality Office with an apartment for the municipality’s clerk), were not included in the list.[1.46] It would be a good idea to think whether a particular piece of real estate was treated unambiguously as a residential building or a homestead which, considering families’ multi-generation profiles, could have had a bigger number of residential buildings.
Most of the houses belonged to the Catholics, but it was Jewish apartments that were mainly situated in the center of the town. What is more, when it came to buying, leasing or building a piece of real estate, the Jews were more mobile.[1.47] Most of their property concentrated on Langiewicza Street, which was a junction between two market squares, as well as on Wesoła Street and Podmurze Street. Almost half of the residents living in Upper and Lower Market Squares were Jewish. Thanks to such a distribution they could count on a big clientele and growth of trade and crafts they were involved in.
The 1931 real estate register shows that there were 513 pieces of real estate in Bodzentyn that year and the number grew by 251 compared to the number ten years earlier. Out of this number (23% more buildings), there were 1.5% more homesteads in the hands of Jewish inhabitants. The number of streets was also growing. The first of the lists mentions 13 streets, the other 23. The layout of the streets is showed on the 1931 map of Bodzentyn made by a local scout group called “Wróble” (“Sparrows”).[1.48]
Teofil Mazurkiewicz, a member of the “Ogniwo” (“The Link”) Agricultural Circle in Bodzentyn, went down in history as a propagator of granting town privileges to the settlement. On April 19, 1925, under his leadership, 162 residents (of 252 of those entitled to vote) gathered in the Municipality Office and decided unanimously as follows:
“Since Bodzentyn covers the area of 1,830 Morgen 150 rods and has 430 houses and 3,123 residents, it has been a town for a few hundred years, and only from the time when it was turned into a settlement by Tsarist authorities, Bodzentyn has kept degrading, and it has been especially hard for it to rebuild after the 1917 fire, as it is part of a rural commune, which inhibits its development.
Bodzentyn has all characteristics a town should have: two market squares and a few paved streets, independently of a market place, a Teachers Seminary, a seven-grade public school, two churches, a fire brigade, a Magistrate’s Court, a post office, two pharmacies (actually one pharmacy and pharmaceutical storerooms – author’s note), a full-time physician, industrial plants, three engine mills (…), weekly fairs, craft guilds and similar facilities. In the face of the data just mentioned, the gathered inhabitants of Bodzentyn have decided to ask the Council of Ministers, through supervisory authorities, to change the rank of Bodzentyn from a settlement to a town, or, alternatively, to isolate a new unit of the Bodzentyn rural commune, taking into consideration future development and reconstruction of the destroyed and neglected settlement, including Bodzentyn’s hamlets of Duże-Sołdackie, Małe-Sołdackie, Bodzenyn-Poduchowny, Bodzentyn-Rządowy, Podzamcze Bodzentyn estate, and Bodzentyn Forestry Office.[1.49].
The document above had enclosed a plan with drawn borders and a budget plan of the future town of Bodzentyn. Unfortunately, attempts to regain town privileges were unsuccessful.[1.50]
- [1.1] Słownik geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego i innych krajów słowiańskich, Vol. 1, ed. B. Chlebowski, Warszawa 1880, p. 274.
- [1.2] J. Wiśniewski, Dekanat opatowski, Radom 1907, pp. 19-20.
- [1.3] F. Kiryk, Urbanizacja Małopolski. Województwo sandomierskie. XII-XIV w., Kielce 1994, p. 25.
- [1.4] F. T. Rzemieniuk, Założenia urbanizacyjne miasta Bodzentyna w związku z ukształtowaniem terenu, „Studia Kieleckie” 1989, vol. 3, p. 113.
- [1.5] F. Kiryk, Urbanizacja Małopolski Województwo sandomierskie. XII-XIV w., Kielce 1994, p. 25; K. Bracha, Przedmowa, [w:] Bodzentyn. Z dziejów miasta. XII-XX w., ed. K. Bracha, Kielce 1998, p. 7.
- [1.6] F. Kiryk, Urbanizacja Małopolski Województwo sandomierskie. XII-XIV w., Kielce 1994, s. 25.
- [1.7] A. Wołczyk, Bodzentyn jako miasto i osada. Prawa miejskie ich nabycie, utrata i próby odzyskania, typescript., Bodzentyn 1987, pp. 7–8.
- [1.8] Encyklopedia powszechna, ed. S. Orgelbrand, Warszawa 1860, p. 860.
- [1.9] F. T. Rzemieniuk, Dzieje ratusza oraz innych budowli komunalnych w Bodzentynie, „Roczniki Muzeum Świętokrzyskiego” 1970, vol. 6, p. 580.
- [1.10] M. Brykowska, Zamek-pałac biskupów krakowskich w Bodzentynie. Przemiany zespołu i architektury w okresie XIV – XVII w., [in:] Siedziby biskupów krakowskich na terenie dawnego województwa sandomierskiego. Materiały z sesji naukowej, Kielce 1997, p. 44; J. Muszyńska, Inwentarze Bodzentyna z lat 1644 i 1668, [in:] Bodzentyn. Z dziejów miasta. XII – XX w., ed. K. Bracha, Kielce 1998, pp. 103-119.
- [1.11] J. Kuczyński, Rezydencja biskupów krakowskich, [w:] Bodzentyn. Z dziejów miasta. XII – XX w., ed. K. Bracha, Kielce 1998, p. 78.
- [1.12] F. Kiryk, Urbanizacja Małopolski. Województwo sandomierskie. XII-XIV w., Kielce 1994, p. 25; L. Stępkowski, Bodzentyn nowożytny, [w:] Bodzentyn. Z dziejów miasta. XII-XX w., ed. K. Bracha, Kielce 1998, p. 82.
- [1.13] A. Wołczyk, Mały, groźny Bodzentyn, typescript., Bodzentyn 1966, p. 202. Szczegółowy wykaz przywilejów zawiera „Opis historyczny oraz topograficzno-statystyczny miasta narodowego Bodzentyna z 1820 r.”; L. Stępkowski, Statystyczno-historyczny opis Bodzentyna z 1820 r., [in:] Bodzentyn. Z dziejów miasta. XII-XX w., ed. K. Bracha, Kielce 1998, pp. 127-128.
- [1.14] L. Stępkowski, Bodzentyn nowożytny, [w:] Bodzentyn. Z dziejów miasta. XII – XX w., ed. K. Bracha, Kielce 1998, p. 90.
- [1.15] F. Kiryk, Dzieje Łagowa w okresie przedrozbiorowym, „Rocznik Świętokrzyski” 1977, vol. 6, p. 79.
- [1.16] F. Kiryk, Lokacje miast biskupich w prepozyturze kieleckiej, [in:] Pamiętnik Świętokrzyski. Studia z dziejów kultury chrześcijańskiej, Kielce 1991, pp. 47-62.
- [1.17] F. T. Rzemieniuk, Dzieje ratusza oraz innych budowli komunalnych w Bodzentynie, „Roczniki Muzeum Świętokrzyskiego” 1970, vol. 6, p. 580.
- [1.18] F. T. Rzemieniuk, Dzieje ratusza oraz innych budowli komunalnych w Bodzentynie, „Roczniki Muzeum Świętokrzyskiego” 1970, vol. 6, pp. 583-603; see also A. Wołczyk, Mały, groźny, Bodzentyn, msp., Bodzentyn 1966, pp. 80-82; L. Stępkowski, Statystyczno – historyczny opis Bodzentyna z 1820 r., [in:] Bodzentyn. Z dziejów miasta. XII-XX w., ed. K. Bracha, Kielce 1998, p. 129.
- [1.19] F. T. Rzemieniuk, Dzieje szkół elementarnych w Bodzentynie, „Przegląd Historyczno-Oświatowy” 1972, r. 15, no. 2, p. 279.
- [1.20] F . T. Rzemieniuk, Dzieje szkół elementarnych w Bodzentynie, „Przegląd Historyczno-Oświatowy” 1972, r. 15, no 2, pp. 292-298.
- [1.21] A. Wołczyk, Cmentarze Bodzentyna, Kielce 1983, p. 25.
- [1.22] F. T. Rzemieniuk, Dzieje ratusza oraz innych budowli komunalnych w Bodzentynie, „Roczniki Muzeum Świętokrzyskiego” 1970, vol. 6, pp. 602-603.
- [1.23] M. Brykowska, R. Brykowski, Dawna rezydencja pisarza browarnego w Bodzentynie, „Rocznik Muzeum Świętokrzyskiego” 1966, vol. 3, pp. 197-210.
- [1.24] F. T. Rzemieniuk, Dzieje ratusza, oraz innych budowli komunalnych w Bodzentynie, „Roczniki Muzeum Świętokrzyskiego” 1970, vol. 6, p. 602.
- [1.25] A. Wołczyk, Mały, groźny, Bodzentyn, typescript, Bodzentyn 1966, p. 164.
- [1.26] F. T. Rzemieniuk, Tworzenie się przemysłu ceramicznego w Bodzentynie w XIX w., „Rocznik Muzeum Narodowego w Kielcach”, vol. 16, 1992, pp. 137-138; see also: Z dziejów ziemi kieleckiej 1918 – 1944, ed . W. Góry, Warszawa 1970, pp. 138-139.
- [1.27] S. Marcinkowski, Miasta Kielecczyzny. Przemiany społeczno-gospodarcze 1815-1869, Warszawa-Kraków 1980, pp. 50-52.
- [1.28] A. Wołczyk, Mały, groźny Bodzentyn, msp., Bodzentyn 1966, pp. 113-114; see also: S. Wiech, Miasteczka guberni kieleckiej w latach 1870-1914. Zabudowa-rozwój-społeczeństwo, Kielce 1995, p. 112.
- [1.29] B. Szabat, Działalność Polskiej Macierzy Szkolnej w Kielcach i powiecie kieleckim (1906-1907), [in:] Studia z dziejów kielecczyzny XV-XX w., Kielce 1982, pp. 140-141.
- [1.30] after: A. Wołczyk, Cmentarze Bodzentyna 1801-1980, Kielce 1983, pp. 59-60.
- [1.31] „Gazeta Kielecka” 1917, no. 150.
- [1.32] Archiwum Państwowe w Kielcach (State Archives in Kielce), Starostwo Powiatowe Kieleckie I (Kielce Province Administration Office I), file no. 109, card no. 4.
- [1.33] APK (Archiwum Państwowe w Kielcach), SPK I (Starostwo Powiatowe Kieleckie I), file no. 124.
- [1.34] T. Dybczyński, Tajemnice Łysogór, Lwów 1937, pp. 116-125; F. T. Rzemieniuk, Dzieje ratusza i innych budowli komunalnych w Bodzentynie, „Roczniki Muzeum Świętokrzyskiego” 1970, vol. 6, p. 580.
- [1.35] A. Wołczyk, Cmentarze Bodzentyna 1801-1980, Kielce 1983, pp. 13-22, 62-67; APK (Archiwum Państwowe w Kielcach), AGB (Akta Gminy Bodzentyn), file no. 2458, card no. 301.
- [1.36] A. Wołczyk, Bodzentyn jako miasto i osada. Prawa miejskie ich nabycie, utrata i próby odzyskania, tapescript, Bodzentyn 1987, p. 147.
- [1.37] „Gazeta Kielecka” 1920, no. 83.
- [1.38] „Gazeta Kielecka” 1934, nr 73; także „Gazeta Kielecka”, 1934, no. 68; „Gazeta Kielecka” 1935, no. 58.
- [1.39] APK (State Archives in Kielce), AGB (Files of Bodzentyn Municipality), file no. 2434, card no. 107-108.
- [1.40] A. Wołczyk, Bodzentyn jako miasto i osada. Prawa miejskie ich nabycie, utrata i próby odzyskania, typescript, Bodzentyn 1987, p. 163.
- [1.41] APK (Archiwum Państwowe w Kielcach), AGB (Akta Gminy Bodzentyn), file no. 2458, card no. 667.
- [1.42] APK (Archiwum Państwowe w Kielcach), AGB (Akta Gminy Bodzentyn), file no. 2434, card no. 106-107.
- [1.1.42] APK (Archiwum Państwowe w Kielcach), AGB (Akta Gminy Bodzentyn), file no. 2434, card no. 106-107.
- [1.43] M. Brykowska, R. Brykowski, Dawna siedziba pisarza browarnego w Bodzentynie, „Roczniki Muzeum Świętokrzyskiego” 1966, vol. 3, pp. 197-210.
- [1.44] APK (Archiwum Państwowe w Kielcach), SPK I (Starostwo Powiatowe Kieleckie I), file no. 1596.
- [1.45] Skorowidz miejscowości Rzeczpospolitej Polskiej, vol. 3: Województwo kieleckie,opr. Główny Urząd Statystyczny Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej, Warszawa 1925, p. 172.
- [1.46] APK (Archiwum Państwowe w Kielcach), SPK I (Starostwo Powiatowe Kieleckie I), file no. 1596, unnumbered pages.
- [1.47] APK (Archiwum Państwowe w Kielcach), SPK I (Starostwo Powiatowe Kieleckie I), file no. 175, card no. 1.
- [1.48] APK (Archiwum Państwowe w Kielcach), Collection of E. Massalski, file no. 113, card no. 5.
- [1.49] APK (Archiwum Państwowe w Kielcach), SPK I (Starostwo Powiatowe Kieleckie I), file no. 109, card no. 4.
- [1.50] APK (Archiwum Państwowe w Kielcach), SPK I (Starostwo Powiatowe Kieleckie I), file no. 109, card no. 4-6.