First records of Jewish settlers in Gliny date back to 1474. Many of them died in the years 1648-1649, during the Chmielnicki Uprising. At the beginning of the 18th century, a fortified synagogue was built to replace the previous wooden one.

Religious movements were very popular among the Jewish community of Gliny. In the second half of the 18th century, the town became one of the main centres (along with Busk) of the Jewish messianic movement called Frankis in the Lviv area. In the mid-19th century, Jechiel Michl Moskowicz, the great-grandson of Jechiel Michl of Złoczów, established a Chasidic court in the town. In 1895, the Baron Hirsch school was established, and one of its teachers was the historian Majer Bałaban. A Hebrew school was established in 1909.

At the end of the 19th century, there were more than 1705 Jews living in Gliny, who constituted about 43% of all inhabitants (3,965). The main occupation of the population was trading in agricultural products.

After the outbreak of World War I, when their homes were looted and burned by the local population, most Jews fled the town. However, by 1920 their population was already 2,418 out of 5,344 people, therefore about 45%.

In the interwar period, the impoverished Jewish community of Gliniany suffered increasingly from the consequences of Polish and Ukrainian economic competition, as well as growing anti-Semitism. This influenced the growing popularity of the Zionist movement. In September 1939, the Soviet occupation of Gliniany began.

On 1 July 1941, the Germans marched into town. From then on, Jews were attacked in the street and their homes were plundered. In July-August 1941, Jews were ordered to wear armbands with the Star of David on their arms. A Judenrat was formed in the town, and a high contribution was imposed on the community.

At the end of November 1942, most of the Jews of Glinia were deported to the ghetto in Przemyślany, and from there, at the beginning of December 1942 - transported to the German Nazi extermination centre in Bełżec. The memorial book of Gliniany states that the Judenrat tried to bribe the Germans in Złoczów to establish a ghetto in Gliniany, so that the Jews would avoid deportation. However, this was refused.

The houses of murdered Jews of Gliniany were looted by local Ukrainians. A small group of Jews from the town were placed in a ghetto in Jaryczów Nowe, established in early December 1942. - mainly those who had some relatives in this village. In total, about 2,500 people were imprisoned in the closed ghetto. The extermination action took place on 15 and 16 June 1943. About 1,570 Jews were shot by the Germans in the forest and more than a thousand were murdered in the Jewish cemetery.

In the summer of 1942, dozens of Jews from Gliniany had to flee the town and hide in the surrounding forests. Most of them were killed by Ukrainian peasants, only some joined partisan groups.

Bibliography

  • Gliniany, [in:] The Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos 1933–1945, vol. II A, ed. G. P. Megargee, pp. 746, 783, 815–816.
  • Gliniany, [w:] The Encyclopedia of Jewish Life Before and During the Holocaust, t. 1, red. S. Spector, G. Wigoder, New York 2001, s. 434.
  • Gliniany, [w:] Słownik geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego i innych krajów słowiańskich, t. 2, red. F. Sulimierski, W. Walewski, B. Chlebowski, Warszawa 1881, s. 583.
  • Rąkowski G., Ziemia Lwowska, Pruszków 2007, s. 244.

 

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