As a settlement, Golub existed since the early Middle Ages. It is first mentioned in 1258 as a village settled with Chełmno Law. The Teutonic Order built a castle in its vicinity between 1296-1306, and at the turn of the 13th and 14th centuries they settled a town with Chełmno Law, though the first settlement document from 1331 has been lost. The settlement was confirmed in 1421 by the Teutonic Order's grand master, Michael Küchmeister. Golub served as administrative seat for Teutonic commanders up until 1465. The town's location by the navigable Drwęca river helped its development, with timber, charcoal, salt, and herrings being sent down the river. Poland's wars with the Teutonic Order in the 15th century left the town partially destroyed. Polish troops took and razed the town in 1410, 1414, 1422 and between 1454-1466. Finally, in 1466, Golub became a part of Poland. Between 1524-1611 it belonged to the Kostka family. In 1611 it went to the sister of king Sigismund III Vasa, Anna Wazówna, along with the office of starost.. The new owner refurbished the castle and assisted in the town's development. After her death in 1625, the town went to the king's wife, Konstancja (until 1631), then to princess Anna Katarzyna (1632-1642) and queen Cecylia Renata (until 1644). From the end of the 17th and through the 18th century, the town changed hands between the noble families of Szczawliński, Lubomirski, Grudziński, Denhoff, and Wessel. The main occupation of Golub's townsfolk from the 15th century onwards was trade, supported by royal privelages from 1454, 1539, and 1587. The town suffered as a result of the wars of the 17th and 18th century. Golub was destroyed by the Swedish in 1629, 1655-1657, and 1703, by the Russians in 1733-1735, and by the Prussians in 1757-1763. After the First Partition of Poland in 1772, Golub found itself under Prussian rule (until 1807) and German settlers came to town. An evangelical church was built in 1784, and a barracks in 1773. Between 1807-1815, Golub was part of the Duchy of Warsaw, in Bydgoski District. Then from 1815 up until 1920 it once again became part of Prussia and fell under the administration of the West Prussia Province, Kwidzyń District, Wąbrzeski County (from 1887). In the first half of the 18th century, the townsfolk were very active in the lumber and grain trades, the brewing and distilling industries also operated in town. In 1880, alongside several dozen artisans, there were 3 tanneries, a candle and soap factory, as well as a cloth and hat factory. Several natural disasters hit Golub in the 19th century, however. 1831 and 1853 saw cholera outbreaks, while a flood in 1833 and a fire in 1893 destroyed part of the town. Still, in 1883 a courthouse was built, and in 1885 one of the first People's Banks in Pomerania. A new bridge was built across the Drwęca river in 1897. 1905 saw the construction of a power plant, and 1913 - a town slaughterhouse. In 1900, a railway line was established, connecting Bydgoszcz, Chełmża, Kowalewo, Golub, and Brodnica. After the conclusion of WWI, Golub became part of the Second Polish Republic, in the Pomeranian Province, Wąbrzeski County. During WWII it was incorporated into the borders of the Third Reich and administratively belonged to Gdańsk-West Prussia Province, Kwidzyń District, Wąbrzeski County. Between 1945-1975 Golub belonged to Bydgoskie Province (1945-1950 Pomerania Province), Wąbrzeski County, and later to Golubsko-Dobrzyński County (from 1956). In 1951, Golub and Dobrzyń were administratively merged (forming Golub-Dobrzyń). Between 1975-1998, it belonged to Toruń Province, and from 1999 it is part of Kuyavian-Pomeranian Province, Golubsko-Dobrzyński County[[refr:]K. Chruściński (ed.), Dzieje Golubia-Dobrzynia i okolic. Praca zbiorowa, (1979).]].

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