In the early Middle Ages there was a stronghold on the territory of the present Kikół. The Kikół castellany was first mentioned in historical documents from 1236. It was abolished in the mid-13th century after it had been destroyed during Prussian invasions. In 1391, the village was owned by the knight Janusz from Kikół. He and his sons sold Kikół to the Teutonic Knights Order in 1395. The treasure of the Teutonic Knights was found in the old stronghold in 1832 – bracteates (coins) from the 14th century. In 1433, the Kikół estate was divided between the Polish king and the heirs of knight Janusz. In the 15th-16th centuries, the Moszczeński and Orłowski families owned the part of the Kikół estate which belonged to the noblemen. In the 17th century, the whole estate belonged to the Zboiński family. The village was destroyed many times – in 1691 and in the years 1702-1703.
In 1745, king August III Sas gave Ignacy Antoni Zboiński a permission to found the town. Another privilege was granted in 1785 and the process of locating the town was concluded in 1791 by Ignacy Antoni Zboiński. In the same year a brick church was constructed. From 15th to 18th centuries, Kikół belonged to the Dobrzyń Land in Inowrocławskie Province.
In 1793, the town was incorporated into Prussia (South Prussia Province, from 1795 – New East Prussia Province). In the years 1807-1815, it belonged to the Duchy of Warsaw (Department of Płock) and in 1815 it became part of the Kingdom of Poland (under Russian rule), in Płockie Province (from 1837 Płock Governorate), Lipno county. In 1793, the town was inhabited by 48 craftsmen, 13 merchants and stall-keepers. Fryderyk Chopin, at the age of 15, gave a concert in the concert hall of the local palace in 1825.
Kikół lost its city charter in 1867. In the end of the 19th century, the Kikół estate became property of the Nałęcz family. In 1935, the estate was purchased by Szeroszewski- the owner of the Chełmica sugar mill. During the interwar period, alongside with the several dozen craftsmen workshops there were: a steam mill, two mechanic workshops, a slaughterhouse, a bakery and the station of the narrow-gauge railway Sierpc-Lubicz.
In the years 1939-1945, the town was incorporated into the Third Reich (Gdańśk-West Prussia District, Regierungsbezirk Bydgoszcz, Lipno county). Between 1945 and1975, it belonged to Bydgoskie Province and between 1975 and 1988 to Włocławskie Province. Since 1999, Kikół is within the county of Lipno in Kujawsko-Pomorskie Province. The town has not regained its city charter.
- M. Blachowska, J. Kuczkowska, K. Kuczkowski, Kikół i okolice na tle dziejów Ziemi Dobrzyńskiej, Rypin – Kikół (1997).
- Księga adresowa Polski (wraz z W. M. Gdańskiem) dla handlu, przemysłu, rzemiosł i rolnictwa 1929, Warszawa (1929), p. 1983.