Mikołajów nad Dniestrem, which became a town in 1940, has been known since 1570. It was part of Poland in the interwar period. Battles in which the units of the “Stryj” operational group commanded by Gen. S. Dembiński defeated Ukrainian troops took place near Mikołajów during World War II, on 13 September 1939. A sabotage-diversion group of Ukrainian deserters from the Armed Forces of the Republic of Poland disarmed and murdered a unit of officers as well as private soldiers of the Polish Armed Forces on 16 September 1939. From September 1939 until 1941, it was under Soviet rule. The NKVD killed an unknown number of Poles and Ukrainians in a local prison on 23 June 1941. The town was under the German occupation in the years 1941-44 and throughout that period it also served as the center of the Home Army underground activity. The Poles living in the town were deported by the NKVD deep into the USSR in the period between 1944 and 1945. From 1945 to 1991, Mikołajów was part of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. The town is known for its building materials industry.
Above content adapted from PWN source materials.