Nowa Sól (Germ. Neusaltz) was established as a settlement of salt brewers. Until 1476, it was the property of the Głogów and Żagań princes. From the first half of the 14th century, it was under Czech rule, and then, from 1526, under Habsburg rule. In the 16th century, the settlement was moved to its present location. In 1553, a brewery was established, which existed until the beginning of the 18th century, and salt depots. A salt chamber was built in 1563 and transformed into a trading post in 1713.
In the 18th century, Nowa Sól had the largest concentration of river fleet in Silesia (195 barges). During the Silesian War in 1740-1742, the fleet was at the service of Prussia. From 1742 the town was under Prussian rule, and in 1743 it was granted municipal rights. In 1744, the Czech brothers from Saxony settled in Nowa Sól and founded a linen factory, which was transformed into an industrial plant in the 19th century.
In the 19th century, there was a large influx of people. Ironworks using the local paddock ore deposits were established, the Odra port was expanded. In 1871, Nowa Sól gained a railway connection. The geographical dictionary of the Kingdom of Poland... describes it under the name "Neusalz" as a town in the district of Kożuchów with a population of 5459. At the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, there was a junior high school, two ironworks, an enamelled goods factory, a leather goods factory, a machine factory, and factories of furniture, carts, cotton fabrics and millstones. A large brewery and a distillery operated within the town's farmstead. Industrial development corresponded with the importance of inland navigation on the Oder River. The town was diversified in religious terms. The Evangelical parish church, the Catholic subsidiary church, the Evangelical school and the Catholic school coexisted in the town (from 1699). The community of the Czech brothers, called herrnhutas, who had their own congregation, was still visible.
During World War II, there were three labour units of Polish, Soviet and French prisoners in Żagań, as well as three forced labour camps in the town. In 1944, a sub-camp of the Gross-Rosen concentration camp was established.
Since 1945, the town has been part of Poland under its present name. In the years 1953-1975 Nowa Sól was and since 1999 it has been the seat of the county.
The original entry based on source materials of PWN.