A settlement might have existed there in the 10th century. The first reference to the town dates back to 1155 . In 1223 Nysa was located under the Flemish law[1.1]. The favorable location of the town by trade routes from Prague to Opole and from Kłodzko to Cracow enhanced its development. In 1241 the Mongols burnt down Nysa. At the beginning of the 14th century the town was the capital of the Duchy of Nysa. In 1327 Prince Waclaw of Bytom paid homage to the king of Bohemia, and from that moment Nysa went under the Bohemian rule, sharing the political history of Silesia. In 1350 the town was fenced with defense walls. In 1429 the Hussite armies burnt down some parts of Nysa. In 1521 an epidemic killed over half of the town inhabitants. In 1526 King Louis II of Hungary died childless, and the throne of Bohemia was taken over by Ferdinand Habsburg, the Archduke of Austria. Hence, Nysa went under the Habsburg dynasty’s rule. In 1542 a great fire destroyed the town. In 1551 the population of Nysa numbered 7,344[1.2]. In 1580 a modern system of bastion fortifications was constructed in Nysa[1.3]. During the Thirty Years’ War, in 1632, the town was burnt down by the Sass armies. In 1742, the Swedish army invaded Nysa. In 1700 the Austrians fortified Nysa with a new line of walls with a broad moat. In 1742 the town was incorporated to the territory of Prussia. The Prussian authorities decided to build a fortress in Nysa, which substantially changed the town’s character. In 1756 the town’s population numbered 5,284[1.4]. During the Napoleonic Wars, in 1807, the fortress of Nysa capitulated after four months of the Wittenberg siege[1.5]. In 1810, the population of Nysa amounted to 7,257. In the 19th century the local economy revived. It was, however, blocked by the existence of the fortress and a military camp. In 1900 the number of the inhabitants of Nysa increased to 20,337[1.6]. In 1903 the fortress of Nysa was closed and the town could develop in a normal way.

During World War II, in March 1945, the Soviet army conquered Nysa. Over 50% of the town buildings were then destroyed due to the military actions[1.7].

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Footnotes

  • [1.1] I. Kęsicka, M. Morga, "Miasto Nysa. Szkice monograficzne", Instytut Śląski w Opolu, Wrocław 1970, p. 19.
  • [1.2] I. Kęsicka, M. Morga, "Miasto Nysa. Szkice monograficzne", Instytut Śląski w Opolu, Wrocław 1970, p. 44.
  • [1.3] J. Kębłowski, "Nysa", Warszawa 1972. p. 263.
  • [1.4] I. Kęsicka, M. Morga, "Miasto Nysa. Szkice monograficzne", Instytut Śląski w Opolu, Wrocław 1970, p. 83.
  • [1.5] I. Kęsicka, M. Morga, "Miasto Nysa. Szkice monograficzne", Instytut Śląski w Opolu, Wrocław 1970, p. 86.
  • [1.6] I. Kęsicka, M. Morga, "Miasto Nysa. Szkice monograficzne", Instytut Śląski w Opolu, Wrocław 1970, p. 94.
  • [1.7] D. Tomczyk, "Wyzwolenie ziemi nyskiej przez Armię Czerwoną w 1945 roku", [w:] "Szkice Nyskie Towarzystwo Miłośników Ziemi Nyskiej", Opole 1979, p. 9.