A settlement existed here as far back as the 12th century but the first mention of Poddambe come from 1388. Before 1400 the town Poddębice was granted town rights.

In 1793 during the Second Partition of Poland the town fell under the rule of Prussia. As of 1807 Poddębice belonged to the Duchy of Warsaw and since 1815 to Congress Poland.

During the January Uprising in 1863 Polish insurgents fought Russian forces in the area. In 1870 the Tsar revoked Poddębice’s town rights

In 1879 a great fire ruined the settlement.

During the interwar period, in 1934 Poddębice regained its town rights.

During Word War II the Germans incorporated Poddębice into the Third Reich (Wartheland).

Poddębice were freed by Russian and Polish forces in January 1945.