The first record of a Jewish population dates back to 1602. The documents of an episcopal inspection in the parish church contain information about Jews practicing usury. However, poll tax registers from 1662-1676 do not mention any Jewish population in Radomyśl[1.1]. Furthermore, there is an information from 1665 about Jews living in the nearby parish in Zdziarzec who ran an inn and a malt-house there[1.2].

The sources state that 364 Jews lived within the municipality in 1765, 302 of whom lived in Radomyśl Wielki proper. In 1779, in 170 houses lived 85 Jewish and 217 Christian families[1.3]. In 1788, a German Jewish school (Deutschjudische Schule) was established in Radomyśl on the initiative of the Jewish community supported by partitioning authorities[1.1.2]. The school managed to operate despite the fact that only 347 Jews (29%) inhabited the town at that time and similar institutions in Dąbrowa or Żabno were soon closed down[1.4].

Dawid Magid Ha-Kohen was the first known tzadik to settle down in Radomyśl in 1765. Although he did not establish his court, his descendants lived in Radomyśl until 1942[1.5]. In 1809, Abraham Perhmuter was appointed as rabbi. The Jews owned a beth midrash by then[1.6].

At the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries, the Jews living in Radomyśl dealt mainly with trade, crafts, usury, leasing mills, distillery, inns and breweries[1.7]. Well-known in Galicia markets (on Thursdays) and fairs (five times per year: on 29 June, 10 August, 5 September, 6 and 25 December) were held in the town, where people traded in horses, cattle and hogs among others. Trading took place on the Market Square and in Targowa Street. Crafts thrived, yet the Jews were rather unwilling to join guilds[1.8]. Initially, before the Partition, it resulted from legal regulations. Under partitioning legislation the Jews were allowed to practice all crafts in the same way Christians were; on condition that they joined a guild and paid proper fees. That was why Jews did not join the craftsmen’s guild and launched cheaper competition.

The market square was divided into two parts: Christian (south-western) and Jewish (north-eastern) [1.9]. Jewish houses, shops and religious institutions (a synagogue, a cheder, a mikvah and a rabbi’s house) were situated nearby. At the end of the 19th century, several estates were purchased by the Gutwirth family. To the most affluent Jews of that time belonged: Lejb Goriber, Chaim Gilberman and Aron Spatz[1.10].

The Jewish community was established probably at the beginning of the 19th century; undoubtedly, it must have existed in 1870 as 1,420 Jews lived in the town then, four houses of prayer and a Jewish cemetery operated there[1.11]. The main duties of the kehilla members included the organization and supervision of schools, the ritual bath, the butchery and religious and social life. The grand synagogue with a sheet-covered roof was located in Rudzka Street (today Armii Krajowej Street) and towered above the town[1.12]. In 1871, a fire broke out in a sukkah near the rabbi’s house. The fire started from a candle, by which the praying rabbi had fallen asleep. As a result 16 Jewish houses were destroyed[1.13].

There also used to be an old Jewish cemetery (today non-existing), the cheder and the mikvah in this part of the town. After the partitioning authorities issued sanitary regulations around 1850, a new Jewish cemetery was established by the exit road from Radomyśl Wielki to Dąbrówka Wisłocka, in the so-called Kąty. Efraim Fiszel’s gravestone from 1817 made of limestone can be found there. The matzeva was probably moved there from the old cemetery.

Samuel Engel was a rabbi in 1900[1.14], while Eisig Rosenberg taught religion in a 5-grade coeducational community school[1.15]. The Jewish registration district in Radomyśl at the end of the 19th century included: Błonie, Breń Osuchowski, Borowa, Czermin, Dąbrówka Wisłocka, Dulcza Mała, Dulcza Wielka, Gliny Małe, Gliny Wielkie, Goleszów, Górki, Grzybów, Hohenbach, Izbiska, Jany, Kawęczyn, Kiełków, Książnice, Łączki Brzeskie, Łyskaów, Łysakówek, Ostrówek, Otałęż, Partynia, Piątkowice, Pień, Podborze, Pławo, Podole, Przecław, Ruda, Rydzów, Sadkowa Góra, Schonanger, Surowa, Szafranów, Trzcziana, Wadowcie Dolne, Wadowice Gorne, Wampierzów, Wola Odlęzka, Wola Płaszowska, Wola Wadowska, Wola Dulecka, Wylów, Ziempniów, Zdziarzec, Żarówka[1.16].

At the turn of the 19th century, Radomyśl Wielki had the second largest Jewish population in the area; the first did Mielec. Already in 1806 a Jew called Strauss settled down in the village of Ruda and ploughed a 20-morgen field, had 3 cows, a plough, a few oxen, residential buildings and a barn[1.17]. There is also a purchase deed of part of the village of Ruda dated 1812 for Berl Wigdor who undertook to build a brewery[1.18].

During WW I, the town remained untouched by fights, yet many inhabitants of Radomyśl, for instance Szlisinger, a Jewish legionary, took part in the war fighting on the front [1.19].

After liberation the situation of Jews in the county was difficult. In many places such as Mielec, Dębica or Borowa numerous anti-Semitic manifestations took place. Raids on Jewish shops started in Radomyśl in the autumn of 1918, nonetheless it was only in May a year later that more serious manifestations happened. The gendarmerie received first reports at the beginning of May but no fighting erupted then.

The main riots broke out in Radomyśl Wielki on 8 May 1919 when at about 10 a.m. the crowd gathered on a market day began to plunder Jewish shops and houses. Although the gendarmerie confiscated suspicious objects before they arrived in the town, the disaster could not be averted. People were pacified only by the policing service and army (including an officer named Lustig). Fr. Krośnieński from the Radomyśl parish also condemned the manifestations. Due to his intervention, some of looted things were returned to their owners[1.20]. Those might be the events that dr. Julian Maj describes in his memories although in his opinion they happened later:

„no one knows how the information spread that Jews are peasants’ enemies so ‘Down with the Jews!’ – with this battle cry almost all inhabitants of the village left for Radomyśl on a market day to beat Jews. Fortunately, policing services and army prevented the pogrom but they did not manage to prevent Jews from being looted. The following Sunday Fr. Józef Krośnieński, a parish priest of Zassów parish which comprised Dąbrówka Wisłocka, roared from the pulpit and condemned those acts asking peasants to stay calm and return stolen goods. In consequence, horse wagons came to Radomyśl in the following days to return an illegal haul.”

At the beginning of the interwar period, economic emigration to the USA, Germany and Hungary increased. In Radomyśl where the agent was Baruch Geldzahler, the phenomenon grew more intense during the war of 1920 as many people feared that they might be enlisted and sent to the front to fight Bolsheviks. Another factor were numerous anti-Semitic incidents which also happened in Radomyśl. A second wave of emigration took place in the mid-1930s (for instance to The Free City of Gdańsk, the USA or France)[1.21].

In 1925, the town was inhabited by 2,432 residents, including 1,425 Jews. National diversity affected the occupational structure to a considerable extent. Jews dominated in trade and crafts. The main trading places were situated on the market square whose impressive size had not changed since the founding of the town. The square was paved with sett and surrounded with rather wide pavements (8-flagstone wide). There were 10 stalls in the eastern part of the market square just in front of the so-called Jewish quarter. All of them were occupied by Jewish sellers and often, at the same time, manufacturers who sold haberdashery and underwear there[1.22]. Jews ran numerous shops: department stores (the address book contains 21 owners of such shops), merceries or agricultural shops. In addition, they traded in pigs (some wealthier Jews used to export them), poultry, eggs, construction materials, haberdasheries, cosmetics, grease and oil, and tobacco products[1.23].

To the elite of the town belonged doctors: Hugo Weiss MD, Hirsch Trau, Maksymilian Gawenda, Jakbub Pelz, Ferdynand Kanegiser (a dentist), Leon Schlisinger (a vet) and Sara Pelz (a midwife). Barristers included, among others, dr. Józef Pelz, Orliński, Leon Spigiel and Bandler[1.24] and Erb Dawid  some time earlier (1912)[1.25].

The position of deputy mayor of Radomyśl Wielki during World War I was held by Szulim Gold. Since then, until 1939 the town’s deputy mayor was always Jewish; Jakub Pelec (1920–1934) was the first and Jeremiasz Lejbowicz (1934–1939) the next one. The kehilla board was headed by rabbi Chaim Engel, a son of Gaon Szmuel, and included following members: Laser Pistąg, Mendel Honig, Jakub Pelz, Anschow Taunenbaum. The assessor rabbi was Moses Padawer, the shochet – Hersz Redlich[1.26].

Chaim Engel was a rabbi from 1917 to 1939. The position was earlier held by his father Szmuel Engel (1853-1935), the former rabbi of Biłgoraj and Dukla, who in 1917 moved to Koszyce where he chaired a rabbinical court [1.27]. Szmuel Engel was follower of tzadik Chaim Halbersztam from Sącz. He was held in high esteem, referred to as the „glow of chosen people” and was called Gaon. In the 1980s, his grandson Elchanan Halpern published in London a collection of his works[1.28]. Another important rabbinic family in Radomyśl was the Horowitz family. The first of this name was Abraham Chaim Horowitz (1850-1919), the former tzadik in Połaniec, who was a great grandson of tzadik Naftali from Ropczyce. His descendants lived also in Mielec, Rozwadów oand Szczucin. The Horowitz family in Radomyśl traded in leather and used to sew shoe-tops. Abraham Chaim Horowitz’s descendant, rabbi Naftali Horowitz initiated the construction of a monument dedicated to the victims of the Holocaust which was unveiled on the Jewish cemetery in Radomyśl in August 1987. The town was also a Talmudic centre. A group of religious scholars existing in Radomyśl (such as Meir Kalman or Alter Sanzer) facilitated the establishment of a yeshiva. Due to this fact, Radomyśl Wielki used to be called “the Capital of Torah”[1.29].

On the eve of World War II, the Jewish population in Radomyśl increased mainly due to the fact that Jews from Germany or Bohemia settled there. In 1939, the town was inhabited by 2,517 Jews.

During the September Campaign, a group of 300 hostages (Poles and Jews) was locked in the church in Radomyśl by the Germans. The Jews were imprisoned in the vestry and were given no food. Meanwhile, Jewish inhabitants collected money for ransom. However, German soldiers agreed only to the food being delivered. The hostages were freed after three days but the Germans shot 10 Jews in the church [1.30]. It was the first mass murder committed by the Germans on defenceless civilians in the Mielec county. The first Jewish female who died during the German occupation was Halina Windstrauch, an eleven-year-old girl, who had been in hiding from 8 September 1939. When she observed the German troops entering the town, she was spotted by the Germans and shot dead[1.31].

With the German troops entering, hard times for Jews began, marked with searches, confiscations or forced labour such as cleaning of the Market Square. At the beginning Jews closed shops and workshops as they feared robberies and confiscations. Nonetheless, they soon came back to work, although some goods such as meat, sugar, coffee or flour were forbidden. Some dealt with smuggling or illegal transport of food to e.g. Tarnów. Zalman Strach and Jechiel Brand, among others, undertook such activities in Radomyśl[1.32]. Jewish children could not attend school that is why underground education was organized. Teachers included: Minka Tananbaum, prof. Szydłowski and Jakub Gold. Jewish history, mathematics, the Bible and Hebrew were taught in private apartments[1.33].

A ghetto has never been established in Radomyśl. On 25 January 1940, a Judenrat was formed in the town; Jeremiasz Leibowicz was appointed its chairman, Anszel Tenebaum and Melich Amsterdam acted as deputy chairmen, while Melich Gross was a secretary. The tasks of the Council included, for instance, recruiting Jews to do work or to go to camps (such as the labor camp in Pusków near Dębica), collecting taxes and other fees for Germans. The first transport of 250 people to the camp in Pustków left Radomyśl on 17 April 1940. Another one consisted of 500 Jews. Summer 1940 saw many Jews who had escaped from nearby ghettos coming to Radomyśl. People’s kitchen and Health Protection Society led by a female doctor from Kraków functioned in the town. At that time the town suffered an typhoid epidemic due to disastrous sanitary conditions and a derelict Christian house was turned into a hospital[1.34]. A job center managed by Mendel Szenkier was established in the Judenrat in 1941, because the Germans very often demanded a proper number of workers and more and more often they took money and possessions from local Jews [1.35].

The situation of Jews worsened at the turn of 1941, when “visits” of Gestapo officers from Mielec (e.g. Rudolf Zimmerman and Oskar Jecek who knew Yiddish) began. They used to come to the town quite often and had drinking-bouts in Ignacy Wysocki’s restaurant during which they summoned representatives of Judenrat and demanded a certain amount of possessions[1.36]. Sometimes they entered Jewish houses and murdered people. Their first victim was Wigdor Pieczewski who was murdered during a morning prayer. In similar circumstances died also: Pinkas Gross – a melamed, Aewigdor Keller - tied to the cross and shot, Awigdor Pińczowski - shot while putting the tefillin on[1.37], Ajsland - a daughter of Szymon Ajsland, Chaskiel Ajslaand – a former Hashomer Hatsair activist. In the spring of 1942, except for the chairman Jeremiasz Leibowicz, all other members lost their posts in the Judenrat. The fear of displacement grew among the inhabitants[1.38].

On Saturday morning of 18 July 1942, as Eisig Leibowicz recalls[1.39], “Gestapo officers came to the Judenrat and demanded an enormous sum of money if they were not to displace the Jews. People started to collect money... A doctor and engineer Klimo from Mielec came at about 10 a.m. The recruitment [transportation] of young people started. Those who were able [to work] were crammed into waiting trucks. I was in the first of them. We said good bye to our families and the town at about 2 p.m. and left for Mielec. Another truck arrived in the evening. Leaving the town they saw the Germans and the police surrounding Radomyśl”. It was only on the next Monday that young inhabitants of Radomyśl sent to Mielec found out what had happened on Sunday (19th July 1942)[1.40], when they came to work there. “On that fatal Sunday the Schutzstaffel and blue policemen units surrounded the town. All Jews were told to appear in the market square at 7 a.m. with all their valuables. The elderly, the ill and children were separated to be shot. Others who were able to work were crammed onto carts and taken to the ghetto in Dębica. Earlier that morning six Jews had been told to dig two large pits for people who were to be executed in the Jewish cemetery. (…) After the selection in the market square during which several people were killed, about 500 Jews crammed into 20 rack waggons were taken to the cemetery.” Jan Ziobroń recalled that the waggons weaved their way as if they wanted to mislead the Jews. “Once they got undressed, the victims went in fives towards the grave, knelt in front of it and Gestapo officers who were the closest shot them in the back of their heads”[1.41]. Among those taken to the cemetery was Appel Brandowa, a pharmacy owner. When ordered to take off her clothes and give all money and jewelry, she tore the notes away and strewed the valuables around the grass. As a result, she was stripped by force and beaten until unconscious. Later that afternoon the police commander Rudolf Zimmerman accompanied by his wife came to the place of execution and “got interested” in Appel Brandowa’s fate. After his subordinate gave him a report on what had happened, Zimmerman took a gun and shot her dead claiming it was an act of mercy[1.42]. The Jews that were sent to the ghetto in Dębica were murdered there (e.g. the members of Judenrat). Only several of them, together with Jews from Ropczyce and Sędziszów, were transported to the camp in Bełżec or other camps. Even before the extermination in summer 1942, a small group of Jews from Radomyśl was taken to the labour camp in Mielec where they assembled planes. When the front was approaching, they were transported to concentration camps, for example, in Germany[1.43].

As for the group of approximately 250 Jews that had not turned up in the market square, they were hiding in Radomyśl, in nearby villages and in the forest (e.g. near Dulcza Mała, Dulcza Wielka, Jama and Radogoszcz ) [1.44]. Many Poles who helped Jews were murdered for that. This was the case in the village of Podborze where Germans burned 23 Polish houses in revenge.

Raids to catch hiding Jews started in 1942. With the help of a forester a group of about 30 Jews was caught in the forest called Koziołek and shot[1.1.44].

One of the last raids took place in 1944, during which Germans caught 15 Jews – Rosenblatt was shot on the spot for an escape attempt, the others were taken to the camp in Płaszów. Chaja Rozneblatt-Lewi who survived the raid and lived in Paris after the war recalled:

“A tragic Saturday of 1944 came, it snowed then for the first time that year. Hundreds of German soldiers surrounded the forest. We learned about that raid too late. When we heard shouts in German, we put on coats on our pyjamas in a hurry and dashed into the other hiding places which we had prepared before and which were in the deep forest. The traces we left on the snow led Germans to our hiding places...We heard <Jude raus!>. We were sitting silently and thinking that these shouts did not concern us. Yet when they threatened to set fire to our „hole” we started to leave it. My husband went out first, I was behind him. Suddenly I lost the sight of him and right after that I heard a shoot. I hoped my husband had managed to escape among the bushes. Unfortunately, a German soldier reported that he was shot while attempting to run away.” [1.45].  

Germans escorted a group of 15 Jews from the forest to the police station in Dąbrowa Tarnowska and then to the Gestapo headquarters in Tarnów where the Jews suspected of cooperation with Polish partisans were being brutally questioned. Those who survived the march and the interrogation were transported to the Nazi German camp in Płaszów and then, after the death march (from 18 January 1945) to Bergen–Belzen where Chaja Rosenblatt awaited liberation. Only a small group of Jews of Radomyśl managed to survive in hiding until the end of the German occupation. The Schaji family, who traded in cattle and horses, was among them, thanks to Fr. Jan Curyłło.

After the war returning Jews stopped over in Radomyśl for only a few days – their journey ended in countries of Western Europe, the USA or Israel. The Jewish Association of Radomyśl Compatriots operates in Israel and its members often visit their former homeland.

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Footnotes
  • [1.1] J. Muszyńska, Żydzi w miastach województwa sandomierskiego i lubelskiego w XVIII w., Kielce (1998), p. 90
  • [1.2] J. Ziobroń, Dzieje Gminy Żydowskiej w Radomyślu Wielkim, Radomyśl Wielki (2009), p. 117
  • [1.3] J. Muszyńska, Żydzi w miastach województwa sandomierskiego i lubelskiego w XVIII w., Kielce (1998), p. 196
  • [1.1.2] J. Ziobroń, Dzieje Gminy Żydowskiej w Radomyślu Wielkim, Radomyśl Wielki (2009), p. 117
  • [1.4] S. Wanatowicz, “Ludność żydowska w regionie mieleckim do 1939 r.”, [in:] Mielec: studia i materiały z dziejów miasta i regionu, Feliks Kiryk (ed.). vol. 3, p. 40.
  • [1.5] S. Wanatowicz, “Ludność żydowska w regionie mieleckim do 1939 r.”, [in:] Mielec: studia i materiały z dziejów miasta i regionu, Feliks Kiryk (ed.). vol. 3, p. 46.
  • [1.6] A. Potocki, Żydzi w Podkarpackiem, Rzeszów (2004), p. 141
  • [1.7] S. Wanatowicz, “Ludność żydowska w regionie mieleckim do 1939 r.”, [in:] Mielec: studia i materiały z dziejów miasta i regionu, Feliks Kiryk (ed.). vol. 3, p. 60.
  • [1.8] M. Przybyszewska, Radomyśl Wielki, dzieje gminy i miasta, Kielce (2001), p. 102
  • [1.9] J. Ziobroń, Dzieje Gminy Żydowskiej w Radomyślu Wielkim, Radomyśl Wielki (2009), p. 16, 117.
  • [1.10] S. Wanatowicz, „Ludność żydowska w regionie mieleckim do 1939 r.”, [in:] Mielec. Studia i materiały z dziejów miasta i regionu, vol. 3, F. Kiryk (ed.), Mielec (1994), p. 45.
  • [1.11] J. Michalewicz, Żydowskie okręgi metrykalne i żydowskie gminy wyznaniowe w Galicji doby autonomicznej, Kraków (1995), p. 74
  • [1.12] Jewish community in Radomyśl Wielki - materials prepared for ‘To Bring Memory Back Educational Program’ in the years 2005-2006 by students (Michał Wolanin, Michał Pawelczyk) of the High School in Radomyśl Wielki, p. 3
  • [1.13] M. Przybyszewska, Radomyśl Wielki, dzieje gminy i miasta, Kielce (2001), p. 106.
  • [1.14] J. Michalewicz, Żydowskie okręgi metrykalne i żydowskie gminy wyznaniowe w Galicji doby autonomicznej, Kraków (1995), p. 168
  • [1.15] J. Michalewicz, Żydowskie okręgi metrykalne i żydowskie gminy wyznaniowe w Galicji doby autonomicznej, Kraków (1995), p. 174
  • [1.16] J. Michalewicz, Żydowskie okręgi metrykalne i żydowskie gminy wyznaniowe w Galicji doby autonomicznej, Kraków (1995), p. 135
  • [1.17] State Archives in Kraków, document dated 20 March 1806, issued by the head of the Jewish Community.
  • [1.18] M. Przybyszewska, Radomyśl Wielki, dzieje gminy i miasta, Kielce (2001), p. 89
  • [1.19] S. Wanatowicz, “Ludność żydowska w regionie mieleckim do 1939 r.”, [in:] Mielec: studia i materiały z dziejów miasta i regionu, Feliks Kiryk (ed.), Mielec (1994), vol. 3, p. 57.
  • [1.20] S. Wanatowicz, “Ludność żydowska w regionie mieleckim do 1939 r.”, [in:] Mielec: studia i materiały z dziejów miasta i regionu, Feliks Kiryk (ed.). vol. 3, p. 58.
  • [1.21] M. Przybyszewska, Radomyśl Wielki, dzieje gminy i miasta, Kielce (2001), p. 115
  • [1.22] Jewish community in Radomyśl Wielki - materials prepared for ‘To Bring Memory Back Educational Program’ in the years 2005-2006 by students (Michał Wolanin, Michał Pawelczyk) of the High School in Radomyśl Wielki, p. 7
  • [1.23] read more in: J. Ziobroń, Dzieje Gminy Żydowskiej w Radomyślu Wielkim, Radomyśl Wielki 2009, pp. 28-33
  • [1.24] J. Ziobroń, Dzieje Gminy Żydowskiej w Radomyślu Wielkim, Radomyśl Wielki (2009), p. 24
  • [1.25] The list of acting barristers in Małopolska as of May 1920, Lwów 1920, State Archives, branch in Spytkowice.
  • [1.26] J. Ziobroń, Dzieje Gminy Żydowskiej w Radomyślu Wielkim, Radomyśl Wielki (2009), s. 35.
  • [1.27] A. Potocki, Żydzi w Podkarpackiem, Rzeszów (2004), p. 142
  • [1.28] S. Wanatowicz, „Ludność żydowska w regionie mieleckim do 1939 r.”, [in:] Mielec. Studia i materiały z dziejów miasta i regionu, vol. 3, F. Kiryk (ed.), Mielec (1994), p. 47.
  • [1.29] S. Wanatowicz, „Ludność żydowska w regionie mieleckim do 1939 r.”, [in:] Mielec. Studia i materiały z dziejów miasta i regionu, vol. 3, F. Kiryk (ed.), Mielec (1994), p. 46.
  • [1.30] S. Wanatowicz, “Eksterminacja ludności żydowskiej”, [in:] Mielec: studia i materiały z dziejów miasta i regionu, Feliks Kiryk (ed.). vol. 3, p. 293.
  • [1.31] J. Ziobroń, Dzieje Gminy Żydowskiej w Radomyślu Wielkim, Radomyśl Wielki (2009), p. 56
  • [1.32] S. Wanatowicz, “Eksterminacja ludności żydowskiej”, [in:] Mielec: studia i materiały z dziejów miasta i regionu, Feliks Kiryk (ed.), vol.3 , Mielec (1994), p. 295
  • [1.33] J. Ziobroń, Dzieje Gminy Żydowskiej w Radomyślu Wielkim, Radomyśl Wielki (2009), p 164
  • [1.34] J. Ziobroń, Dzieje Gminy Żydowskiej w Radomyślu Wielkim, Radomyśl Wielki (2009), p. 167
  • [1.35] J. Ziobroń, Dzieje Gminy Żydowskiej w Radomyślu Wielkim, Radomyśl Wielki (2009), p. 169
  • [1.36] Jewish community in Radomyśl Wielki-materials prepared for ‘To Bring Memory Back Educational Program’ in the years 2005-2006 by students (Michał Wolanin, Michał Pawelczyk) of the High School in Radomyśl Wielki, p. 10
  • [1.37] S. Wanatowicz, “Eksterminacja ludności żydowskiej”, [in] Mielec: studia i materiały z dziejów miasta i regionu, Feliks Kiryk(ed.), Mielec (1994), vol. 3 p. 299.
  • [1.38] J. Ziobroń, Dzieje Gminy Żydowskiej w Radomyślu Wielkim, Radomyśl Wielki (2009), p. 170
  • [1.39] J. Ziobroń, Dzieje Gminy Żydowskiej w Radomyślu Wielkim, Radomyśl Wielki (2009), p. 173
  • [1.40] Stanisław Wanatowicz sets the date on 17 July 1942 roku. Compare: S. Wanatowicz, „Eksterminacja ludności żydowskiej, [in:] Mielec. Studia i materiały z dziejów miasta i regionu, vol. 3, F. Kiryk (ed.), Mielec (1994), p. 300.
  • [1.41] J. Ziobroń Jan, Dzieje Gminy Żydowskiej w Radomyślu Wielkim, Radomyśl Wielki (2009), pp. 62-63
  • [1.42] Jewish community in Radomyśl Wielki-materials prepared for ‘To Bring Memory Back Educational Program’ in the years 2005-2006 by students (Michał Wolanin, Michał Pawelczyk) of the High School in Radomyśl Wielki, p. 12
  • [1.43] J. Ziobroń,  Dzieje Gminy Żydowskiej w Radomyślu Wielkim, Radomyśl Wielki (2009), p. 62.
  • [1.44] J. Ziobroń,  Dzieje Gminy Żydowskiej w Radomyślu Wielkim, Radomyśl Wielki (2009), p. 64.
  • [1.1.44] J. Ziobroń,  Dzieje Gminy Żydowskiej w Radomyślu Wielkim, Radomyśl Wielki (2009), p. 64.
  • [1.45] J. Ziobroń,  Dzieje Gminy Żydowskiej w Radomyślu Wielkim, Radomyśl Wielki (2009), p. 148.