In the 11th century, there was a gord with surrounding it settlements on the crossing of trade routes from Kraków, Wielkopolska, Śląsk to Ruthenia. Radomsko was first mentioned in 1243. It belonged to the Duchy of Sieradz. The town received a city charter before 1266. In 1339, it was incorporated to the Crown. In 1382 and 1384, it held conventions concerning succession to the throne after Ludwik Węgierski. In the 14th century Radomsko was the seat of the county office, and since the 15th century the town’s office.

Radomsko was an important trade and crafts centre (weaving, shoemaking). In 1626, it was plundered and burnt down by a unit of Lisowczycy (light calvary). In the 18t century, it was famous for groats production. The town was partly rebuilt in the second half of the 18th century. From 1793, it belonged to the Prussian partition, in 1807 it was incorporated to the Duchy of Warsaw and in 1815 it became part of the Kingdom of Poland under Russian partition. In the 19th century, craftsmanship and trade (particularly in wheat) developed. In 1846, a railway connection was opened, which influenced development of industry in the second half of the 19th century (among others a furniture factory was established). Beginning in 1862, Jews were allowed to settle there freely (since 1643 the privilege de non tolerandis Judaeis had been in force). In the mid-19th century, Radomsko became a renowned Hasidic centre, formed around tzadik rabbi Salomon Rabinowicz. In 1939, there were approximately 13,000 of Jews in the town, which constituted about 55% of the total population. In the second half of the 20th century, it became a strong centre of radical peasant movement. During World War I, the plant machinery was transported to Russia and municipality devices were destroyed. In the interwar period, Radomsko saw rapid development (timber, metal and food industry). During the German occupation in 1939, a transit camp for Polish prisoners of war was established. In the years 1940-42 and 1942-43, two ghettos existed in the town. About 18,000 people in total were imprisoned there and the majority was transported to the extermination camp in Treblinka.

Radomsko was one of the strongest centres of the Polish Underground State (the Home Army, the Peasants’ Battalions, the National Armed Forces) and area of partisans’ activity. As a result of the attack on the local prison conducted on 7-8 August 1943, the Home Army unit commanded by the Lt S. Sojczyński liberated more than 50 people, including 41 members of the Home Army. In the years 1945-1946, members of the Polish independence organizations were deported by the Soviet secret police NKVD further into the USRR. Radomsko was the area where anti-communist organizations such as the underground Polish Army operated. On 19-20 April, the local prison of UB (Security Office) was taken over and 57 prisoners were set free as a consequence.

Radomsko had been the seat of the county office before 1975 and has the same status since 1999. In the nearby Korbiele Wielkie Władysław Reymont was born in 1867.

The entry was based on the PWN source materials.