The first references to Sataniv date back to the 14th century, although there was a popular legend, according to which Sataniv was reached by the Roman legion of Toniliusz, who took part in the conquest of Dacia under the rule of the Emperor Trajan. The settlement was to be named Sataniv after the Latin word “sat” (“enough”). The settlement was the futhest point to be reached by the Toniliusz's legion, and, according to the legend, the commander asked his legionaries “Sat aut non” (“Enough, or shall we go further?”). The legionaries were to answer “Sat, sat!” (“Enough, enough!”). The town's name is also associated with the Satan, similarly to Chortkiv.

In 1404, Władysław Jagiełło granted Sataniv to the Odrowąż family, which was obliged to build a castle there to protect Podolia against the Tatars. In 1444, Sataniv received its urban charter.

In the mid-17th century, Sataniv was devastated by the troops of Bohdan Khmelnytsky, but it suffered the most severe damage during the Turkish invasion in 1676. The town was defended by all the inhabitants, including the Ruthenians, Poles and Jews. Almost 4,000 people were murdered by the Turks. Those who survived were taken captive.

Sataniv was regained by the Commonwealth in 1699. It started to revive again in the possession of the Sieniawski family. Adam Mikołaj Sieniawski rebuilt the castle and fortified the town. The synagogue reconstruction also dates back to this period - the first synagogue was built in the 16th century, at first as a wooden, and then as a brick synagogue, with a defensive function. The synagogue in Sataniv has been considered to be the oldest defensive synagogue in Podolia till the present day. At the synagogue, there was also a court and a prison.

In the second half of the 18th century, Sataniv was a major trade and craft centre in Podolia. Apart from Poles, Jews (who constituted the majority of the inhabitants) and Ruthenians, Armenians and Greeks settled here. In 1780, there were 527 houses in the town. In the immediate vicinity of Sataniv, there was a monastery in Słobódka Satanowska. Originally, it was an Orthodox monastery, and then a Uniate one, and after 1772 it was again in the possession of Orthodox monks. In the 18th century, it was a special place. In the monastery, there were special cells for monks sentenced for felonies to life seclusion. One of them is even said to have been immured alive. He was given food through a special hole in the wall. The monastery operated until the interwar period. Then, the Bolsheviks arrested the monks and closed the monastery. The monastery revived for a short period of time during the German occupation, and, after the war, it was closed again and also devastated. It was regained by Orthodox monks after 1991. Today, it is gradually reconstructed.

The fall of the town began together with the partitions, when the border between Russia and Austria was established along the Zbruch River. From 1793, Sataniv was situated in the Russian territory, just next to the border, and, in 1796, it was incorporated into the Proskurov County of the Podolia Governorate. In that period of time, the town was owned by the Potocki family.

In 1830, the town was inhabited by 2,786 people, living in 688 houses. In 1864, it had a population of 3,199 people. The town was substantially Jewish. There were 7 houses of prayer here, 5 Orthodox churches (including 3 churches in the suburbs) and a Catholic chapel. The state institutions operating in the town included only the border office and the one-class school.

The town’s growth took place at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. In 1874, the town had a population of 4,677 people, and around 1900 – of more than 5,000 people. In 1876, there were 100 craftsmen, 81 stalls, a brewery, a winery, a brickyard, 2 mills and a tannery in the town. There were also two doctors and a pharmacy. The trade turnover was generated by 9 fairs, during which sheepskin coats and leather were sold among other things. Around 1900, there were small metal workshops, two small glass factories, mills, a brickyard, a quarry, an oil mill and a brewery operating in the town. Particularly important was the sugar factory opened in 1899.

In 1917, the Bolsheviks took power of the town for the first time. At the end of the 1920s, Sataniv was the capital of the Juryńce Rayon in the Proskurov County. In 1932, the town was incorporated into the Vinnytsia Oblast, and in 1937 – into the Khmelnytskyi Oblast. In 1933, a power plant was opened. The town was situated directly next to the border with Poland, and it was perfectly visible from the other bank of the Zbruch River. In 1938, it was granted the status of an urban-type settlement.

During the German occupation, in 1941-1944, 136 residential buildings were devastated, and the power plant was ruined. The town was reconstructed in 1945-1950. Subsequent investments in the Soviet days were implemented in 1966-1969, when, for example, the water supply system was established, the main street was asphalted and a bus station was opened.