Although there were no Jews in Sianów in 1712, the town already had the payment of 6 thalers for those who wanted to settle in it. It was not until 1718 that Israel Levin asked for permission to settle in Sianów.

Ten years later, nothing changed; no Jews settled there. A similar situation was found in 1731 when the municipal council noted that Sianów had no Jewish population and no Jewish person applied for the privilege to settle in that poor town. This state of affairs lasted until 1736 when Loyser Fischel received permission to arrive in Sianów.

The same year on 9 October, the tax inspector Samuel Scopell issued a certificate for a Jew, Marcus Joseph, who requested a privilege for another Jew on his behalf. He claimed that Jews were much wanted in Sianówas because no one traded petty goods, and the townspeople had to import such products from Koszalin. Moreover, no one in the town traded leather for the manufacturing of shoes, which was in great demand then.

Settling Jews in Sianów was also for the benefit of the tax office. Finally, in 1752, there was one Jewish household of nine people in Sianów. These were Jacob David, his wife (a widow of late Loyser Fischel holding a privilege), their two sons: David and Arndt Fischel, two daughters: Rosel Fischel and Anna David, as well as a farmhand, Michel David, and a teacher, Meyer Marcus. In 1764, both Jewish families, the Leyser and the David families, paid 15 thalers and 12 groschen each in return for their privileges.

In 1782 and 1784, 16 Jews lived in Sianów, but in 1812, there were six Jewish households with 22 members who assumed official surnames, preserving the old ones at the same time. These names are listed in a book.[1.1]

There is very scanty information concerning the life of a small Jewish community in Sianów in the 19th century. It is known that the number of community members increased insignificantly. In 1816, the town had 14 people of Jewish origin; in 1843 and 1852, there were 23 and 49 such persons, respectively. In 1864, the Jewish population dropped to 42 people, but in 1871, it reached its highest number of 53 people. The list of Jewish families who lived in Sianów in 1850–1874, even for a short while, is included in the book.[1.2] In that period, 28 children were born, 29 people died (including 19 children and babies), and 23 couples married.

In 1868, Moses Crohn was the community chairman, and three years later, he was replaced by J.H. Jonas and H. Engel. Meanwhile, from 1851 to 1873, the posts of cantor, teacher and butcher saw frequent changes. Their names are mentioned in the book.[1.1.2] In the following years, the number of community members fluctuated but remained low at all times. In 1875, its number totalled 31 people; in 1880, 1885, 1890 and 1900, there were 12, 26, 23 and 19 members, respectively. At the beginning of the 20th century, there was a plan to found Evangelische Frauenhilfe in Sianów; however, Jewish women requested another charity, Vaterländischer Frauenverein vom Roten Kreuz, be set up instead.

This is because they wanted to be involved in helping women by and for women, and because of their faith, they could not be members of an evangelical organization. The townspeople and the evangelical superintendent were favourably disposed to their proposal. In 1905, five or six Jewish families of  24 people lived in Sianów; however, they belonged to the Jewish community in Koszalin. Sianów had 2,760 inhabitants at that time. A 1930 address book indicates five Jewish families still lived in Sianów. Four of them resided in Breitestraße (Polish: ulica Szeroka; currently ulica ArmiiKrajowej)[1.3] and one in Rügenwalder Chausee.

Merchant Alfred Engel died in 1929, and his fur and feed shop was taken over by his grandson from Berlin. J. Groß ran a china shop near the town hall; after his death, Julius Groß, his son, took over the business. His widow, Johanna Groß, died in Sianów. The 1939 census reveals that Julius Gorß, born in 1884 in Sianów, and his wife Margarete, née Rosen, of Tuchom (German: GroßTuchen) were the only persons of Jewish descent in the town. They resided in Breitestraße 32. Both were deported to Auschwitz in a transport which set off from Berlin on 6 March 1943. On the other hand, Max Gumpert and his wife, Anna, owned a shop with handmade goods, linen, wool and clothes. It was located on the eastern side of the market square; however, after the death of Max Gumpert in the mid-1930s, his widow quit the business.

From the beginning of the 20th century, Dr Max Kohn ran a surgery in Sianów. After his death in the early 1920s, the surgery was taken by his son, Dr Rudolph Kohn. He then emigrated with his mother to France, where they felt safer. However, it did not save them from deportation east.

 

Bibliography

  • F. R. Barran, Städte-Atlas Pommern, Leer 1993, p. 133
  • G. Salinger, Zur Erinnerung und zum Gedenken. Die einstigen jüdischen Gemeinden Pommerns, vol. III, New York 2006, pp. 863–864

 

 

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Footnotes
  • [1.1] G. Salinger, Zur Erinnerung und zum Gedenken. Die einstigen jüdischen Gemeinden Pommerns, vol. II, New York 2006, pp. 863–864.
  • [1.2] G. Salinger, vol. III, op.cit., p. 864.
  • [1.1.2] G. Salinger, vol. III, op.cit., p. 864.
  • [1.3] F. R. Barran, Städte-Atlas Pommern, Second revised edition, Leer 1993, p.133.