In the period between the wars, Zamość was one of the towns in Lubelszczyzna where the Jewish community was the most numerous[1.1].

In those days, the Zamość municipality was developing in terms of its demography, against a previous decline triggered among others by the outbreak of the First World War, the emigration of some of the inhabitants to the east with the withdrawing Russian army in 1915, negative population growth and mass labour migration caused by difficult living conditions during the war. At the same time a gradual drop in the proportion of the Jewish population among Zamość inhabitants was another characteristic of the community.

The year before the outbreak of the First World War, Jews amounted to 70% of the town’s population, in 1921 the proportion dropped significantly and it was a mere 49.3%.[1.2]

Even though ten years later the number of Jewish inhabitants had increased by an additional 900 people, and the Zamość municipality became the fourth biggest municipality in Lubelszczyzna, in terms of the number of Jewish inhabitants[1.3], the share of Jewish inhabitants in the town gradually dropped and in 1936 it was only 40.3%.

But at the end of the 30s, even though between 1932 and 1939 over 200 Jews from the town emigrated abroad, this decline was arrested. Shortly before the outbreak of the Second World War, in 1939, in Zamość there were about 12,531 Jews; they amounted to 43.4% of the town’s population[1.4].

Year Number of inhabitants Number of Jews
1856 4,006 2,490 (61.2%)
1919 20,804 10,298 (49.5%)
1921 19,032 9,383 (49.3%)
1924 20,122 8,874 (44.1%)
1931 24,267 10,265 (42.3%)
1936 25,225 10,166 (40.3%)
1939 28,873 12,531 (43.4%)

Jewish population in Zamość (1856 - 1939)[1.5]

  • [1.1] A. Kopciowski, Zagłada Żydów w Zamościu, Lublin 2005, p. 13.
  • [1.2] Skorowidz miejscowości Rzeczpospolitej Polskiej. Województwo lubelskie, t. 4., Warszawa 1924, p. 122, for: A. Kopciowski, Zagłada Żydów...., p. 13.
  • [1.3] „Statystyka Polski”. II Powszechny Spis Ludności z dnia 9 XII 1931 roku. Mieszkania i gospodarstwa domowe. Ludność. Stosunki zawodowe. Województwo lubelskie, tabl. 11, Warszawa 1938, p. 32; for: A. Kopciowski, Zagłada Żydów…, p. 13.
  • [1.4] For: A. Kopciowski, quote zagłada Żydów…., p. 14.
  • [1.5] Ibidem, , p. 13-14; A. Koprukowniak, Miejskie społeczności lokalne w Lubelskiem 1795 – 1918, Lublin 2000, p. 16.