Tartaków was founded as a trading settlement after 1676. It specialized in eastern products, especially carpets. Jews were among the first settlers, maybe the majority. At the turn of the 17th and 18th centuries, an organized community functioned in the town, which was later dominated by Hasidim from Bełżec. The owner of Tartaków, Franciszek Salezy Potocki, pantler’s assistant (Polish: krajczy koronny), allowed the establishment of a Jewish printing house in the village. Around 1754, however, he ordered its closure and gave the printing press to the Jesuits.

In 1880, 779 Jews lived in Tartaków, constituting 63% of its population (1,238 people). Around 1914, there were 1,400 Jews out of 2,400 inhabitants. During World War I, the community fell victim to violence perpetrated by Cossacks and Circassians who were in the Russian service. There was also a typhus epidemic.

According to the census of 1921, there were 1,039 Jews out of 1,486 inhabitants of the town - 69.9% of the total. In terms of social inclinations, both the influence of Zionism and the assimilationist aspirations were noticeable - most Jewish children attended Polish schools. They earned their living as traders (in cornflower, building materials, cattle, wood, agricultural machinery, glass and porcelain, grain, iron and various goods), craftsmen (tinsmithing, wheelwrighting, tailoring, rope making, carpentry, shoemaking). There was also a Jewish teahouse and several kosher slaughterhouses. The plants included: M. Röhr's groats factory, A. Gertl's mill, K. Kram and I. Röhr's oil mills, and I. Waldman's bakery. The taverns were run by A. Auster, Ch. Gertel and H. Guss. The watchmaker's shop belonged to H. Schmuckler[1.1].

The Soviet occupation brought an end to the economic and social activities of Jews. In June 1941, after heavy shelling, German troops entered the town. The persecution began almost immediately. 173 Jews were murdered, and the remaining were subjected to forced labour regime. Soon, also in June 1941, in retaliation for the killing of a German officer by unknown perpetrators, Germans shot 83 people - Jews, Poles and Ukrainians.

The community’s existence ended in October 1942. The last 900 people were transported to the Bełżec extermination camp, and some to the newly set up ghetto in Sokal. On 22-24 October 1942, about 3.5 thousand Jews from various localities, including Łopatyn, Mostów Wielkie, Radziechów and Witków Nowy were forcibly relocated to this ghetto.

At the end of October 1942, Germans carried out a liquidation action in Sokal - 2,000 people were transported to the Bełżec extermination camp, and 60 were killed on the spot. Ultimately, the Sokal ghetto was dissolved on 27 May 1943.

Bibliography

  • The Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos 1933–1945, vol. II A, eds. Goeffrey P. Megargee, p. 830.
  • Rąkowski G., Ziemia Lwowska, Pruszków 2007, p. 206.
  • Tartakow, [in:] The Encyclopedia of Jewish Life Before and During the Holocaust, t. 3, red. S. Spector, G. Wigoder, New York 2001, p. 1296.
  • Tartakow, [in:] Hołokost na territorii SSSR, ed. I. A. Altman, Moscow 2009, p. 966.
  • Tartaków, [in:] Słownik geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego i innych krajów słowiańskich, t. 12, eds. F. Sulimierski, W. Walewski, B. Chlebowski, Warsaw 1892, pp. 216–217.

 

Print
Footnotes
  • [1.1] Księga Adresowa Polski (wraz z w. m. Gdańskiem) dla handlu, przemysłu, rzemiosł i rolnictwa, Warsaw 1930, p. 799