Narodowe Siły Zbrojne (NSZ)

National Armed Forces – a military organisation of the Polish underground; it was established in September 1942 as a result of the National Military Organisation’s refusal to subordinate itself to the Home Army. The National Armed Forces were created by combining a few smaller military organisations; it was commanded by Col Ignacy Oziewicz who was taken over from by Col Tadeusz Kurcyusz and Maj. Stanisław Nakonicznikoff-Klukowski. During the occupation the National Armed Forces had about 70,000-90,000 soldiers. The main objective of the organisation was independent Poland with a pre-war eastern border, and a new western border on Odra and Nysa. Its programme emphasized nationalism, rejecting Nazism and Communism; it was planning to establish a national and Catholic Polish state. Hence the organisation’s negative attitude towards national minorities and its anti-Semitism. The National Armed Forces had a military intelligence, were organising supplies, releasing prisoners, fighting banditry and engaging in warfare against Germans, Armia Ludowa (the People’s Army) and Soviet guerrilla. The greatest number of National Armed Forces’ guerrilla units were in regions of Lublin and Kielce. Its units were taking part in the Warsaw Uprising (about 2,000 soldiers). In November 1944 a part of National Armed Forces transformed itself into the National Military Union, which, until the beginning of 1946, was engaged in the underground activity (each unit had about 2-4 thousand soldiers) fighting NKVD, units of the Ministry of Public Security of Poland, and the Ukrainian Insurgent Army. In 1947 most of its units were uncovered although some of them remained active in the underground until the middle of 1950s.

The term was created within the framework of the project Zapisywanie świata żydowskiego w Polsce [recording the Jewish environment in Poland], whose author is Anka Grupińska, a well-known Polish journalist and writer, specializing in the modern history of the Polish Jews. The project, initiated in 2006 by the Museum of the History of Polish Jews, consists in recording interviews with Polish Jews from all generations.
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