Jews in Dębica (Dembitz) were mentioned for the first time in 1293, when the settlement was owned by a member of the House of Griffins.

The content of the 1471 agreement signed by Father Piotr and the master of the town, Jan Podgrodzki, indicates that all residents of Dębica, with the exception of Jews and representatives of other faiths, were required to pay tithes to the Church. However, no other sources confirm the presence of Jews in the town at the time. It is probable that only a small group of Jews lived there[1.1].

In mid-16th century the Jewish community was already present in nearby Pilzno thanks to the efforts of Elder Jan Tarło. However, in 1629 they had to leave the town by order of King Stefan Batory. In consequence of the royal decision, the de non tolerandis Judaeis privilege was introduced in Dębica; it de facto remained in force until mid-19th century[[refr:|Szczeklik J., Pilzno i jego dzieje, Pilzno 1994, p. 266.]]. It can be assumed that the Jews forced to leave Pilzno following these events became the first Jewish inhabitants in Dębica.

In the 1676 tax register there is a mention of two Jews living in the estate of Jacek Winiarski[[refr:|Dębica. Zarys dziejów miasta i regionu, eds. J. Buszko, F. Kiryk, Kraków 1995, p. 143.]]. A larger migration of Jews to Dębica could be noted in the years 1676–1690. The charter of the butcher's guild dating back to 1690 includes the following mention: if the student slaughters cattle for a Jew – he first has to cut out the pericardium, intestines and spleen. If, however, Jews were to not allow the students to slaughter cattle and wanted to do that themselves, then they must not bring kosher meat to Dębica from anywhere”[[refr:|Dębica. Zarys dziejów miasta i regionu, eds. J. Buszko, F. Kiryk, Kraków 1995, p. 143.]]. The implemented “rules of safety” confirm the Jewish presence in the town and the attempts to limit their participation in the slaughter of cattle. The charter is the first evidence of the existence of a significant Jewish community in Dębica, which at that time could already form an independent kehilla.

In 1660 a great fire destroyed a part of the town along with the town hall. A settlement called Nowa Dębica was established afterwards. Its area stretched around the current marketplace, where the St. Barbara Church was located. It is certain that the first settlers inhabited the area of Stara Dębica, while the new residents, who settled in the town after the fire of 1660, were more willing to choose Nowa Dębica. Five Jewish families lived here in 1673. All the buildings constituting the four frontages of the marketplace were built by Jews. Jews were gaining more and more influence on economic life of the town, especially on trade.

At that time there were two distinct Jewish communities – in 1712, Levi, son of Yitzchak (called Lewek Isakowicz in Polish), was the head of the Nowa Dębica community, while the kehilla located in the older part of the town was headed by Hershel (called Herszko)[1.1.1].

A number of documents drawn up in early 18th century mention Micel and Judy, the Jewish owners of the squares at the marketplace in Stara Dębica, and Kielman – the owner of the buildings. There were more Jews in Nowa Dębica than in Stara Dębica, with the marketplace of the new part of the town surrounded with houses owned by Lewek, Lubecki, Eliasz, Szaja, Lewek Robczycki, Eyzyk, Zenon Pilzeński, Szloma Straszęcki, Józef Jakubowicz, Rzepka, Efraim Korzennik, Szmaja Doktorowicz, Szmul Bafia, Icek Czapnik, Dawid Turczyn, Abelia Efraim Bucha, Mosiek Lipiński, and Leyzor Krawiec. Many Jews also lived in the nearby streets in Nowa Dębica: on Dworska Street – Litwaczek, Pilzeńska Street – butchers Berek and Lewek. A large part of the Jewish community in the town was poor (51 people)[[refr:|Dębica. Zarys dziejów miasta i regionu, ed. J. Buszko, F. Kiryk, Kraków 1995, p. 150.]].

According to the first census carried out in 1764, after the dissolution of the Council of Four Lands, 911 Jews lived in Dębica, including 573 in the town itself, and 338 in adjacent villages located in the same administrative unit. The census recorded 135 breadwinners, but only 33 of which were engaged in craft: 1 retailer, 3 hatters, 1 rope maker, 7 tailors, 1 goldsmith, 5 bakers, 7 butchers, 1 engraver, 1 barber, 1 musician, 4 teachers and 1 cantor[1.2]. The Jewish presence in the town very quickly resulted in a conflict between the immigrants and the Catholics. A detailed description of the origins and course of the conflict can be found in Księga Pamięci Dębicy:

The growing Jewish community of the New Town was treated with distrust by the clergy, who held a grudge against the Jews as a result of, among others, a dispute between priest Młodecki and the master of the town Gliński. When the owners of Dębica had allowed Jews to settle in the New Town, and the Church (...) questioned the masters’ ownership of the New Town’s land, priest Młodecki found a pretext to exert pressure on them by complaining to the Church authorities about the excessive growth of the Jewish community. The Cardinal of Kraków, Prince Kazimierz Łubieński, ordered an investigation regarding the status of Jewish communities in the Old and New Town, sending a special delegation to Dębica for this purpose. Its task was primarily to examine the legal status of the New Town where – as claimed in the complaint – the Jewish community was established and settled in violation of the king's and synod's laws and contrary to the decision of the supreme court. The Cardinal's envoys ruled that the synagogue (house of study?) in the New Town should be dismantled and could not be rebuilt in the future.

The Jews of Dębica did not accept this decree. In the presence of the head of the community Reb Levi, son of Yitzchak, the community testified under oath to the Cardinal of Kraków, claiming that the house in question is not a synagogue at all. They claimed that it had been set up with the knowledge of the Episcopate of Kraków as a private house meant to serve as the community office and a house of study, without any opposition from the local Catholics and the local church – in a separate area from the residential area of the Catholics, outside the Old Town, and with letters of permission from the kings and the masters of the town. They swore that the New Town area occupied by a large Jewish community was not adjacent to any premises inhabited by Catholics, and that the Jewish community in the New Town should be tolerated since – just like the community in the Old Town – it paid all the traditional taxes and levies imposed by the Church and priests. Therefore, they felt justified in requesting that their synagogue can also be located in that building. Rabbi Hershel, the head of the community of the Old Town, was also present at the meeting, and requested permission to maintain his community separate from the community of the New Town.

The matter was brought again before the special committee, which included nobleman Jan Nowakowski, and Dr. Albert Olszowski. After much deliberation, the committee decided against the request of the Jews. They decided that the Jews of the Old Town and the New Town were required to gather in one building, and if they were to not abide by this decision, they would be required to pay a fine of 50 tynfs (coins) to help rebuild the monastery that had been destroyed by the Swedish invasion. The committee also noted that the Jewish population was increasing and the Catholic population was decreasing, and that the Jews were taking over all property and business that should have been in the hands of the Christians. Therefore, the committee decreed that the Jews must close their houses and not appear in the streets during the times of church processions, that they must not pour drinks on Sundays, and that they must not employ Christian maids in their homes. All of this was imposed under penalty of severe fines. Apparently, however, the study hall (beth midrash) was not destroyed[1.3].

Despite some antipathy shown by Catholics, it seems that trading relations between them and the Jews were fruitful, as evidenced by mentions in the Alderman's records. For example, in 1725 Wojciech Graniewski issued a receipt to Mosze Zelmonowicz, Jóżef Moskowicz and Izrael Leyzorowicz for the amount of 200 tynfs. In 1731 Tomasz Stanowicz sold a house at the marketplace in Nowa Dębica to Liber Dawidowicz for 108 Polish złotys[1.4].

The Jewish community was engaged in brokering real estate and plots, but was also involved in crafts such as leatherwork or hat making; they also ran distilleries, breweries and inns[1.5]. Jews also gave loans, e.g. in 1763 tanner Wojciech Tarnopolski and Szymon Stomgowicz reported that they had incurred a debt of 300 from Jew Zelik Lasocki, and therefore they could not make a purchase from the tanner. The financial situation of some members of the Jewish community was so good that the stewards of the town appreciated their contribution in the development of Dębica and therefore exempted them from taxes – as in the case of Majer Leybowicz[1.6].

It is without a doubt that the kehilla in Dębica operated smoothly. Jews had their synagogue and cemetery, where the inhabitants of Pilzno were also buried until the creation of their own local religious community in 1873[1.7]. In 1870 the kehilla started to manage two synagogues, a cemetery, a school and three fraternities. Two rabbis lived in the town at the time, and the function of the main community rabbi was held by Ruben ben Eliezer Horowitz, a grandson of Naftali of Ropczyce. He was later succeeded by his son, Alter Jechoszaja Horowitz.

During the Partitions, the Jews of Dębica found themselves under Austrian rule. Initially, the town belonged to the Pilzno District, then to Rzeszów District, and finally to Tarnów District. An Austrian cavalry unit was stationed in Dębica in mid-19th century; it was a source of significant part of income of the local Jews.

In the 19th century the professional structure of the Jewish community did not change much. A richer group of merchants could be distinguished: Kotz, Leibel, Leiter and Rubinowicz. Later they became the originators of the development of industry in the town, with Rubinowicz and Kotz opening a vodka factory[1.8]. In the 19th century there were 22 Jewish craftsmen in Dębica (butchers, bakers, tailors, tinsmiths, soapboilers and barbers), 80 Jewish traders and keepers, 86 Jewish homeowners and two Jews engaged in other professions[1.1.8]. Due to the presence of soldiers in the town, inns, restaurants and roadhouses were very popular. Salomon Borstein's hotel, Isaac Haber's café, as well as three kosher eateries, operated in the town[1.9]. Jews practically dominated all trade in the town, and many families, such as Gewurz and Recht, had been traders for many generations. At that time, Jewish physician Samuel Grosser provided his services to the residents of the town. The following people were homeowners: Izrael Hake, Mojżesz Goldberg, Abraham Siedliszer[1.10]. One of the 19th century financiers active in Dębica was Jonasz Geschwind, who ran a currency exchange and provided short-term loans.

Significant growth of trade and industry also occurred in the land estates surrounding Dębica, e.g. in the nearby Nagoszyn, where Baruch Schmindling was engaged in Polish cattle breeding and ran a distillery. In Pustków, managed by Abraham Brot, there was a distillery and a peat mine[1.11].

The year 1878 saw the establishment of the First Factory of Cordage and Reed Mat, owned by Jakub Taub and employing 14 people. Mendel Leib, meanwhile, opened the Galician Shoe Factory, while Natan Grunspan founded the First National Wheelbarrow, Wheel and Wagon Factory. Industrial plants were also run by Hinda Hauser (Factory of Notebooks and Paper Accessories) and Natan Essen (Locksmith, Machine and Iron Foundry). In addition, at the end of the 19th century, the following were active in Dębica:

  • two steam-powered mills belonging to Lazar Perelstein and Jakub Leichter,
  • Lazar Perelstein's steam sawmill,
  • concrete plant belonging to Wolf Ader, Pinkas Widerspan and partners,
  • Hersz Herszlag's bakery,
  • Abraham Schonfeld's slaughterhouse,
  • soda water plants belonging to Zelig Goldfarb and Ezik Silberman,
  • Izrael Hauser's manual printing house,
  • Mendel Gunhuta's glass workshop,
  • Majer Flamm and Chaim Jakub Semmel's sheet metal workshop,
  • Samuel Izrael's boilermaking workshop,
  • Majer Zweig's brassworks,
  • Chaim Ferzigier and Berl Siedlisker's watchmaking workshop,
  • Abraham Preser's basket weaving workshop,
  • Mojżesz Lowe's and Berl Fruchman's tanning workshops,
  • Michl Fruhman's brushmaker’s workshop,
  • Aron Daar's leatherworks,
  • Mojżesz Uszer's ropemaker's workshop,
  • tailor's workshops owned by Salomon Berger, Salomon Daar, Izaak Herman, Samuel Jakub Steinhaus, and Chaskiel Storz,
  • Samuel Semmel's shoemaker's workshop.

Initially, the only Jewish representative of the municipal authorities was the town office cashier Mendel Mahler[1.12]. However, at the end of the 19th century the participation of Jews in the administration increased: Lazar Perlstein and Mojżesz Dawid became the Deputy Mayor and the Financial Controller, respectively[1.13]. In 1894, the function of the Deputy Mayor was performed by Jonasz Geschwind, the then head of the Jewish community in Dębica. Following the change of composition of the municipal administration in 1904, Geschwind was succeeded by Dr. Zygmunt Fischer. In 1909, the office was held by Chaim Mahler[1.14].

At the same time, Christian councillors formed the Christian Religious Community Council led by the Mayor, whereas the Jewish Community Council was under the authority by the Deputy Mayor. It seems (there are no surviving sources) that at the beginning of the 20th century there were no disruptions in the activities of either of the two councils[1.15].

The Jewish intelligentsia was formed by the legal community in the town. Sydon Friedberg, Eliasz Goldfluss, and Salomon Fischler were some of the lawyers active in Dębica in the 19th century; in 1914, Dawid Tewil Herzog opened his own legal office[1.16]. There were also Jewish doctors and a Jewish chemist (Pinkas Goldfluss) in the town. In the 19th century the town funded a Jewish school – a cheder employing one teacher.

Rabbis from Dębica were Hasidim associated with the court of the tzaddik of the Horowitz family. The dynasty reigning in Dębica came from the Dzików line, established by the son of Tzaddik Rabbi Naftali of Ropczyce[1.17]. In the second half of the 19th century, the town became one of the Ropczyce Hasidic centres despite certain opposition among the community of Dębica. Ultimately, the grandson of Reb Naftali, Reb Reuven Horowitz, became the Rabbi of Dębica[1.18]. The rabbis belonging to the Dzików line in the late 19th and early 20th century were: Alter Joszua Horowitz, Szmuel Horowitz, Cwi Hirsz Elimelech Horowitz. It seems that the educational life of the Jewish community was largely focused on traditional upbringing. At the beginning of the 20th century there were only 27 Jews among the 406 students of the local public middle school[1.19].

The community council elected just before World War I included: Reb Mendel Mahler (chairman), Izrael Schtarch (deputy chairman), Jaakow Taub, Jona Geschwind, Hersz Schuldenfrei, Jaakow Lische, Chaim Alster, Mosze Sommer, and Abraham Kus (members). The communal secretary was Jehuda Tewel. The teacher of Judaism in the public school, who drew a salary from the community, was Mosze Wallach[1.1.3].

With the outbreak of World War I, the economic situation of the Jews deteriorated. At the beginning of the war, a large part of the civilian population fled Dębica, while the Russians coming into the town plundered Jewish shops, dismantled most of the factory equipment, and persecuted the Jews who remained in the town. The situation did not change until the Russian withdrawal from Dębica[1.20].

The first municipal elections in Dębica after the war were held in 1921. Jews were largely represented in the Council, with the Town Mayor – Michael Knot, also being Jewish. M. Goldfuss became the Deputy Mayor.

The Zionists played an important role among the political group[1.21]. In the next election, held in 1926, four Jews representing a Zionist party called the National Union of Jews were elected to the Town Council[1.22].

At the end of the 1920s, a conflict in the Town Council broke out between the supporters of the Mayor, aided by the Jewish councillors, and Christians. This led to an election impasse in 1931 and 1932. As a result of elections held in mid-August 1932, the Mayor's “party” won by a slight margin. Undoubtedly, the victory could not be possible without the support of the Jewish community and the “clerical-Jewish” group consisting of the parish priest, the dean, the middle school headmaster, the head of the Polish State Railways, as well as Szymon Grunspaum and Izrael and Pinkus Laufbach. In the elections held in the 1930s, Jews secured 30% of the seats in the Town Council[1.23].

Elections to the kehilla authorities were held several times during the time of the Second Polish Republic. The first were won by the Zionists, who secured eight seats in the 10-seat council, with the two remaining seats taken by Orthodox Jews. This result was surprising as the elections were held in a curia system, and the previous “kehilla clique” was still successful in elections held in most communities in Galicia. However, in some cities, such as Tarnów, Gorlice and Nowy Sącz, the Zionists won the majority of seats[1.24]. Hersz Taub and Joachim Sommer were some of the kehilla officials active in Dębica.

The German army marched into Dębica on 7 September 1939. Wehrmacht troops murdered three Jews and set fire to the synagogue[1.25]. In October 26, the town became a part of the General Government managed by Hans Frank.

Probably some 2,200–3,000 Jewish people lived in the town at that time. It is difficult to determine their precise number because of frequent migrations that had begun even before the war. In the first year of the war the situation of the Jews was quite stable – they could trade and carry goods. However, many anti-Jewish decrees were soon introduced, including the confiscation of a major part of their movable property, obligatory work (e.g. street sweeping, cleaning of offices and military barracks), prohibition from entering public places. Jewish organisations were dissolved and their property was confiscated[1.26]. The winter of 1939/1940 saw a number of organised escapes of Jews to the territories occupied by the Soviet Union, but many of the escapees were imprisoned or accused of spying for Germany. Over time, many refugees returned to the town.

The decisions concerning Jews were initially issued by civilian authorities, headed by Kreishauptmann Dr. Auswald. The Judenrat, managed by Towia Zucker, was established in November 1939. It was responsible for the daily assignment of people for forced labour. It had to deal with the confiscation of Jewish property to pay the “contributions.” The Jews who performed forced labour were beaten and insulted[1.27].

A census was carried out in the spring of 1940 to register the Jews fit for work. In June 1940 a group of Jewish men was sent to a forced labour camp in Pustków. They were also transported to a number of smaller labour camps where both Polish and Jewish people were imprisoned. The Judenrat had to provide food and blankets for the working Jews. Thanks to bribes it was possible to get the permission for some forced workers to return from Pustków[1.1.27].

In the winter of 1940/1941 the situation of Jews deteriorated considerably. Germans were confiscating property and demanded more and more forced contributions. The Judenrat started a community kitchen that distributed hot meals to the poorest. In addition, support was provided by the Joint association, which, together with the Judenrat, ensured financial (ca. 20-30 per month), medical (free visits to doctors and covering medication costs), sanitary, and material (e.g. soap, potatoes) assistance to Jewish people. Moreover, help was given to the Jews who were resettled to Dębica during the war. They were provided with housing and financial assistance[1.28].

The support provided by these institutions was insufficient, particularly in the camp in Pustków. At the beginning of 1941, the Women's Association was established in Dębica under the chairmanship of Rózia Gluckman. It was responsible primarily for providing food to Jewish children[1.1.28]. A secret yeshiva was operating in the area of Dębica from 1940, with Izrael Leib as the teacher. At the time, Zucker was replaced by Josef Traub in the Judenrat[1.29].

A ghetto located at Żeromskiego Street and Kilińskiego Street was established in Dębica in 1941 – it was one of the poorest parts of the town, near the marketplace. All Polish families were displaced from the area. In the first months of that year, ca. 2,200 Jews from Dębica were relocated to the ghetto. There were not enough houses to accommodate such a great number of people so small wooden barracks were built in the area, with 20 people living in each of them. In the summer of 1942 the Jewish district was already fenced with barbed wire. A special permit was required to leave the area. Any Jews caught smuggling food were shot at the Jewish cemetery[1.30].

After some time, Germans started to resettle the Jews from the liquidated smaller ghettos in Radomyśl Wielki, Ropczyce, Sędziszów Malopolski (24 July 1941 – 1,500 people), and Pilzno (August 1941 – 1,200 people) to the ghetto in Dębica. The overcrowded ghetto in Dębica soon housed as many as 12,00 people. The sanitary conditions deteriorated drastically and diseases were widespread. A small hospital was created to isolate the ill; some of the doctors working there were Dr. Mantzer, Dr. Idek and Dr. Tau[1.31].

The first major “operation” was carried out in July 1942. The Gestapo ordered to gather the Jewish population at today's Żuławskiego Street. “In the afternoon, the Gestapo officers sat at a table near the area of Księża Łąka, and the families from the ghetto passed before them one after the other, like sheep”[1.32]. All of those who had their work permits returned to them by the Gestapo returned to a designated gathering place in the ghetto along with their families. Those whose permits were not returned to them (those who were older than forty or fifty, as well as those whose work places were not recognised by the Gestapo committee) were brought to a second gathering place, right next to Księża Łąka. There, the Jews waited all day for the final decision of the Gestapo. They were joined by the Jews from Tarnobrzeg, Rozwadów, Pilzno, Sędziszów, Ropczyce and Wielopole. The Germans chose a group which was transported by trucks to the place of mass execution. Ca. 200 people were shot in the Wolica Forest near Dębica. At the same time, a group of at least 3,000 remaining Jews was taken to the death camp in Bełżec, and a smaller selected group was transported to the forced labour camp in Pustków (ca. 200 people)[1.33].

On 21 July 1942 Germans shot eight Jews on the so-called Łysa Górka. Over the course of the next executions, several dozen Jews lost their lives. In late July a selected group of Jews (about 150 people) from Dębica was sent to the forced labour camp in Rzeszów, which manufactured Messerschmidt aircraft parts. Jews from Pilzno and other locations were brought to the ghetto to replace the murdered. However, a quick selection was carried out once again and about 800 people were taken to Bełżec[1.34].

Another large-scale “operation” took place on 15-16 December 1942. Germans decided to liquidate the ghetto and leave only the engine house workers on the spot. Many Jews tried to get to the factory by bribing the Judenrat. Those who did not manage to do that were transported to Bełżec. The operation was carried out mainly by Ukrainian officers with the help of the Jewish police. Those who tried to escape were shot on the spot. Ca. 1,600 people remained in the labour camp. Those who were staying there illegally were shot[1.35].

The final liquidation of the ghetto in Dębica took place in April 1943. At the beginning of 1943, 20 people employed in the engine house were killed in Księża Łąka. Several dozen Jews employed by Germans to do cleaning work were transferred to the camp in Rzeszów in February 1944. Ten Jews were executed on the local Jewish cemetery on 27 April 1944, with another five killed there few days later. The Nazis shot 8 Jews in the nearby Pustynia in 1942. Some of the engine house employees were transported to a labour camp near Kraków. It should be noted that the camp in Pustków, built in 1940 for both Jews and Poles, was also a site of extermination of the Jewish population of Dębica.

During the war, some Jews managed to escape from the transport or survive the camp. Others had the opportunity to hide among Christians. The best known example is the story of the Mikołajków family. According to the certificate issued by the Temporary Jewish Committee in Dębica, Leokadia Mikołajów, a hygienist and wife of doctor Alekander Mikołajów, helped to save 15 Jews. The married couple, residing at Kościuszki Street, took in Efraim Reich with his family. Efraim had previously been employed by Aleksander as a messenger at the health fund, thanks to which he could contact the ghetto. After some time, the Reichs went back to the ghetto, but when Aleksander Mikołajków learned of the plans of the final liquidation of the Jewish district, he arranged the smuggling of 13 members of the Reich family back to his apartment. They were hiding in the attic, in the garage and in the basement until August 1944[1.36]. It was particularly difficult to hide the Jews as the Mikołajków's house was adjacent to the headquarters of the Gestapo, whose officials confiscated the garage belonging to the family. The District Protective Council helped to feed the hiding Jews. The son of the Mikołajków couple, Leszek, smuggled messages, food and medicine to the ghetto as a small boy. The couple was engaged in underground activity; it assisted in placing Jewish children in Polish orphanages. Leokadia also helped other Jews in acquiring food. Her husband Aleksander was killed by a bullet while tending to a wounded person on 20 August 1944[1.37]. On 31 January 2006 the Dębica Town Council accepted the request of the Friends of Dębica Region Society and named the square between Kazimierza Wielkiego Square, Rzeszowska Street, Gawrzyłów Stream and the Solidarności Square after Alekaander and Leokadia Mikołajków[1.38]. Felicja Tewel was hiding her husband Maurycy, a lawyer, in Dębica. At the beginning of 1943 the Gestapo barged into their apartment and Maurycy was arrested. His sister and her son remained in hiding. On the night after Maurycy had been arrested, they were moved to a safe hiding place. Murycy Tewel was sent to Auschwitz[1.39].

According to the data of the Temporary Jewish Committee as of 30 May 1945, there were 51 Jews (30 men and 21 women) in the town[1.40].

Nine Jews lived in Dębica in 1946[1.41]. After the war, several Jewish families lived in the town, but with time they migrated to Israel and the United States. Izrael Goldberg, the only Jew who had not left Dębica, died in 1991[[refr:|Interview with Ireneusz Socha.]].

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Footnotes

  • [1.1] Gelber M. N., Historia Żydów w Dębicy, [in] Księga Pamięci Dębicy [online] http://www.jewishgen.org/yizkor/debica/demp005.html#Page9 [Accessed: 24.04.2014].
  • [1.1.1] Gelber M. N., Historia Żydów w Dębicy, [in] Księga Pamięci Dębicy [online] http://www.jewishgen.org/yizkor/debica/demp005.html#Page9 [Accessed: 24.04.2014].
  • [1.2]  Gelber M. N., Historia Żydów w Dębicy [in] Księga Pamięci Dębicy [online] http://www.jewishgen.org/yizkor/debica/demp005.html#Page9 [Accessed: 24.04.2014].
  • [1.3] Gelber M. N., Historia Żydów w Dębicy, [in] Księga Pamięci Dębicy [online] http://www.jewishgen.org/yizkor/debica/demp005.html#Page9 [Accessed: 24.04.2014].
  • [1.4] Dębica. Zarys dziejów miasta i regionu, eds. J. Buszko, F. Kiryk, Kraków 1995, p. 156.
  • [1.5] Dębica. Zarys dziejów miasta i regionu, eds. J. Buszko, F. Kiryk, Kraków 1995, p. 157.
  • [1.6] Dębica. Zarys dziejów miasta i regionu, eds. J. Buszko, F. Kiryk, Kraków 1995, p. 161.
  • [1.7] Dębica. Zarys dziejów miasta i regionu, eds. J. Buszko, F. Kiryk, Kraków 1995, p. 179.
  • [1.8] Dębica. Zarys dziejów miasta i regionu, eds. J. Buszko, F. Kiryk, Kraków 1995, p. 181.
  • [1.1.8] Dębica. Zarys dziejów miasta i regionu, eds. J. Buszko, F. Kiryk, Kraków 1995, p. 181.
  • [1.9] Dębica. Zarys dziejów miasta i regionu, eds. J. Buszko, F. Kiryk, Kraków 1995, p. 231.
  • [1.10] Dębica. Zarys dziejów miasta i regionu, eds. J. Buszko, F. Kiryk, Kraków 1995, pp. 182–183.
  • [1.11] Dębica. Zarys dziejów miasta i regionu, eds. J. Buszko, F. Kiryk, Kraków 1995, p. 227.
  • [1.12] Dębica. Zarys dziejów miasta i regionu, eds. J. Buszko, F. Kiryk, Kraków 1995, p. 238.
  • [1.13] Dębica. Zarys dziejów miasta i regionu, eds. J. Buszko, F. Kiryk, Kraków 1995, p. 241.
  • [1.14] Dębica. Zarys dziejów miasta i regionu, eds. J. Buszko, F. Kiryk, Kraków 1995, p. 244.
  • [1.15] Dębica. Zarys dziejów miasta i regionu, eds. J. Buszko, F. Kiryk, Kraków 1995, p. 246.
  • [1.16] Dębica. Zarys dziejów miasta i regionu, eds. J. Buszko, F. Kiryk, Kraków 1995, pp. 248-249.
  • [1.17] Samsonowska K., Wyznaniowe gminy żydowskie i ich społeczności w województwie krakowskim (19181939), Kraków 2005, p. 102.
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