The building of the former Bejt Samuel (Beit Shmuel) Synagogue is located at 3 Branickiego Street. The synagogue was constructed between 1901 and 1902, in the Moorish style. Its name commemorates Samuel Mohilewer, the most famous rabbi of Białystok and an advocate of Zionism, who died in 1898. It is worth emphasising that the synagogue was located a long way from the Jewish district. As a matter of fact, it was a reform synagogue, which was attended by the representatives of the Białystok Jewish elite.

Being burnt down by Germans during the occupation, it was reconstructed several times in the post-war period. During the first reconstruction, it was adapted to serve as a cinema, then as a sports club and finally as a training centre. As a result of the changes, the original architectural arrangement and the decor of the building were lost. Only the semicircular-headed windows, which are visible from the yard, and the apse on the bay of the eastern elevation where the Aron Kodesh was kept, have survived to this day.

Today, the building serves as a training centre for the Province Police Headquarters in Białystok. However, on the building's wall there is an information board with a Polish and Hebrew inscription reading as follows: “The Jewish Synagogue named after Great Rabbi Shmuel Mohilewer’s was located at this site”.