Jewish settlement here was not formally possible until the beginning of the 19th century. But that does not mean that Jews were not present in Olsztyn. In medieval times, they would arrive here occasionally as merchants, who had been granted permission to take part in fairs, but who, at the same time, were forbidden to trade freely within the villages. They were seen as competition for the Warmian and Prussian townspeople. Nevertheless, the local authority benefited from business conducted by the Jewish traders. Often, these two issues were contentious and difficult to reconcile and, therefore, their rights underwent constant change[1.1].

The situation remained the same, even when Warmia was incorporated into the Republic of Poland. In 1717, the town council in Olsztyn expressed its dissatisfaction with the Warmia chapter which allowed two Jewish merchants to remain within the Olsztyn administrative district (komornictwo). Threatening their arrest and the confiscation their products, in 1718, Bishop Teodor Potocki imposed a ban on trade by Jewish and other travelling merchants. Ten years afterwards (1728), Bishop Krzysztof Andrzej Szembek permitted Jews to engage in trade, but this was extended only to those who had the appropriate privilege. Three years later, however, he issued a complete ban on Jewish trade. In 1742, Bishop Adam Stanisław Grabowski reversed the ban on Jewish trade, but only within the cities. This limitation, however, was not very effective as, by the mid-18th century, Olsztyn residents complained that the Jews were purchasing flax, yarn and animal leather ain the villages and not at the fairs.

In 1753, the Warmia chapter gave its permission for Jews to trade exclusively in haberdashery. A year later, Bishop Grabowski permitted only three Jews to sell their products at annual fairs. Others were also allowed to trade, but only at the annual fairs. The Jews circumvented the bishop and chapter’s regulations, gladly establishing themseoves within the estates of the landed gentry[1.2].

Permanent Jewish residents appeared in Olsztyn during Prussian times. They arrived in 1780 although, formally, they were deprived of citizenship status and lived outside the city walls[1.3]. Settlement conditions changed with the end of the Napoleonic wars. The so-called Tolerance Edict of 1813 came into force and the first Jews arrived in the city from West Prussia and then from the Kingdom of Poland.

The first Jewish shop in Olsztyn was opened in 1814 by the Simonson brothers. By 1816, the number of Jews numbered sixty and rapidly their religious and school infrastructure. In 1819, a Jewish cemetery was established and, in 1835, a synagogue was built[1.4]. For the most part, local Jews worked in trade and crafts. Amongst individual families, there was a wide range of wealth. By the second half of the 19th century, Izaak and Simon Simonson, as well as Frankenstein were considered the richest Jews[1.5].

Apart from the Jews who had settled permanently in Olsztyn, other Jews appeared in the city and its surroundings, who derived their income from peddling, usury and smuggling. In 1850, the Olsztyn Landrat (official authority – starost) announced, “I order the gendarmes to detain and bring here all Polish Jews who wander without a special permit. Residents are reminded that anyone who admits non-resident Jews into their homes and hosts them will be fined two thalers or will be imprisoned for as many days as those Jews stayed in their homes”[1.6].

The Olsztyn Diaspora, as opposed for example to the community in Mazury, continued to grow through the 1880's and 1890's. There was a steady increase so that by 1925, the community numbered 610. Until 1913, he headquarters of the Federation of Synagogues of East Prussia (Synagogenverbands), instituted in 1880 in Wystruć, was located in Olsztyn.[1.7]. In 1877, a headquarters for the Jewish Community Council was built near the new synagogue, along with a residence for its officials and a storage facility. In 1907, a Jewish home for the elderly and for the disabled was established.

From 1891, the synagogue boardf provided financially for its rabbis. From 1871 to 1898, Tonn served as rabbi. He was followed by Dr. Marcus (Marek) Olitzki who held his post until 1920. His successor was Dr. Naftali Apt (born 1888)[1.8] who served until 1942. Regarded as highly educated and righteous, Rabbi Olitzki featured significantly in the history of the community. In 1921, he took part in the laying of a foundation stone for the new City Hall and, in his memoirs, wrote, "Peace and blessings. May the New City be a witness for future generations, testifying to the harmony and peace among all residents”[1.9]. An obituary notice, which appeared in “Gazeta Olsztyńska” in 1920, stated, "Dr. Marek Olitzki, a rabbi from Olsztyn, has died of the flu. Held in profound reverence, he was leader of the Jewish local community for more than 28 years”[1.1.6].

The Federation of the East Prussian Associations of Jewish Culture and Literature (Verband des Ostpreussischen Vereins für jüdische Geschichte und Literatur) was active Olsztyn. In 1902, the Jewish fraternal order, B’nai B’rith, began here with its headquarters on the corner of ul Cesarska (Kaiserstrasse, now ul Kopernika 13) and ul Moltkego (Moltkestrasse, today ul M. Kajki) [1.1.7]. It was commonly believed that this building was connected, by underground tunnel, to the nearby “Stein an der Alle” (Kamień nad Łyną) lodge. This belief was so strong that, in March 1933, SA men searched the surrounding gardens in the hope of finding a hidden passage[1.10].

An Olsztyn Jew known throughout the world was Erich Mendelsohn, a noted  architect and one of the founders and proomoters of constructivism, modernism and German expressionism. He was born on 21 March 1887 to a merchant family of Dawid and Emma (nee Jaruslawska) Mendelsohn, in an apartment house at the former ul 21 Podgórna Street (Oberstrasse, now ul Staromiejska 10, a plaque makes the site on ul Św. Barbara, commemorating his place of birth).

Two Jews, widely known in Germany and connected with Olsztyn, were Hugo Haase (1863-1919), born in Olsztyn, a moderate social democrat and pacifist, prior to World War I - one of the leaders of the SDP[1.11] and impressionist Frieda Strohmberg (1885-1940) who lived and worked in Olsztyn from 1910 to 1927. 

Olsztyn Jews, first and foremost, were merchants. They dominated branches of the clothing and textile industry (e.g. Max and Georg Hirschfeld, L. Hirschfeldt, L. and Dawid Mendelsohn, Salko Frankenstein, Jakub and Moritz Simonson, J. Levy, Max Silberstein, Julius Lewin, Julius Dittrich, Julius Blum, Louis Lewald, L. Rehfeld, Herrmann Cohn, J. Maretzki, Max Litzmann, Hermann Lachmans[1.12]. Ludwik Silberstein owned the first elevator in the city situated in his department store built in 1907, as well as ironmongery and building materials (J. Mondry, Moritz Lachmann) and household goods (Jakub Mondry, Leo Landshut. Others made their income trading in leather, haberdashery (Daniel Heymann), shoes (Pincus Lewald), sewing machines (J. Baruch), thermometers (S. Salzmann), herrings (Wilhelm Lewin), colonial and delicatessen products (Jakub Woythaler, Josef Herrmann, Julius Schleim etc. Selmar Herrnberg and Abraham Lewin made a living through selling grain. They belonged to a manufacturers’ circle. M. H. Raphaelsohn produced cotton wool, Segall – soap, Jakub Silberstein – vinegar and mustard, Lewin – quern stones and Julius Ladendorff (Ladendorf, Laddendorff)[1.13] - matches.

In 1901, the latter's industrial empire, which also included sawmills and industrial plants, employed nearly 700 workers[1.14].

Olsztyn Jews also worked as craftsmen (e.g. Josef Herrmann repaired umbrellas. Julius Lewin was a banker, Paul Hirschberg was a hotelier. They were doctors, pharmacists and brewers (J. Silberstein, Hirsch Herrnberg. Some of them, like Bernard Lewinson, Salomon Lippmann, Max Marcus – “Zum Jacobiner” or H. Schönberg owned gastronomic bars. V. Silberstein was a postcard publisher.

The Olsztyn Jewish community stood somewhat apart from the ethnic Polish-German conflict and adapted their use of language according to their clients. In 1861, the recorded statistics show that 30 local Jews spoke Yiddish, while 130 spoke either Polish or German. Until the late 19th century, many Jews supported Poles. For example, during the 1893 elections, the merchant Dawid Mendelsohn supported a Polish candidate, the priest Antoni Wolszlegier, arguing that “every Jew should vote for Poles as they are decent fellows”. 

Over time, however, members of the community began to identify more and more with the German majority[1.15]. Despite that fact, they did involve themselves in the social life of the city. From the beginning, they belonged to the City Beautification Society (1843). Dawid Mendelsohn was a city councillor member, co-founder and then the leader of the voluntary fire brigade. He was active in the Red Cross, the Gymnastics Society and the War Association (Kriegerverein). He lectured at the Olsztyn University of Agriculture. Similarly, Louis Lewald joined the fire brigade and the Gymnastics Society.

In 1853, Izaak Simonson was elected as the first cityy councillor. Others to serve as councillors included Hirschfeld, Lewinsohn, Jacobsohn, Lewin, Raphaelsohn, Salzmann and Simon. In 1861, the city council elected the merchant Seelig Salzmann as Deputy Mayor. However, regency authorities in Królewiec[1.16] would not endorse that choice. Jews often financially supported the poor, irrespective of their religion, and even funded itemss for the Catholic churches[1.17].

However, some discord between the Jewish community and the Christian majority could not be avoided. In 1882, during an increased period of antisemitic activity which struck Europe at that time with particular intensity, police prevented an attempted pogrom against Jewish workers. Such anti-Jewish attitudes and beliefs, also expressed in the local press, were prompted by religious antagonisms and economic competition (e.g. regarding the leasing of lakes) [1.18].

The difficult and complex political and economic situation of Germany after World War I was also felt within East Prussian Olsztyn. The recessionary atmospher, coinciding with the growth of the wealth of the richest members of the Jewish community, created ideal conditions for antisemitic attitudes to spread. Jews and Communists were seen as the sources of the misery. With the Nazis coming to power, antisemitic activity intensified and was well organised, During the night of 31st July 1932, stirred up by the Germans, violence broke out in the city and was directed against left-wing activists and Jews[1.19].

In 1993, it was commonplace for Jewish shops to be boycotted. Jews were dismissed from their, displaced and had their assets expropriated. Emigration was supported. Its “Jews’ friends” were stigmatised in the fascist magazine “Stürmer”. Legal and administrative restrictions were enacted against Jewish citizens (e.g. they were required to adopt “second” names such as Israel, Meyer, Sara and were forced to wear a yellow Star of David armband)[1.20].

Jews were refused the rights of Germans. Following the elections of March 1933, won by the NSDAP, all houses were ordered to be decorated with black-white-red flags, the colours acknowledged as those of the Reich. Jewish merchants also did so, but SS men confiscated their flags[1.21]. Sometimes, from the perspective of future events, curious situations occurred. On 14th March 1933, some “individuals clad in SA uniforms” picketed Jewish shops and distributed antisemitic leaflets - for the most part, in front of the Conitzer & Sons Company store. The Jews turned for help to the SA commander in Królewiec, who, “supported by an SS unit, threatened the SA men with removal from the SA and thus he restored order”![1.22]

On 1st April 1933, SA patrols blocked access to Jewish shops but only to those whose owners were German citizens. Shops belonging to Polish Jews were spared[1.23]. However, this opaeration failed. Rtazki, the Olsztyn County head (Kreisleiter), wrote later, “In the future, operations against the Jews must be kept secret, as announcing the boycott in Olsztyn backfired and, for two days preceding the operation, Jewish shops were full of customers”[1.24].

The chicanery escalated after 17 August 1933. Fascist authorities intensified public tension. For instance, in 1937, they directed that a Jewish family be moved to an apartment belonging to a Polish activist Franciszek Barcz, which was used as a kindergarten for the Polish children of Olsztyn[1.25]. During Kristallnacht on the night of 9th November 1938, the synagogue was looted and set on fire. Jewish Community Council buildings and Jewish shops were destroyed and the cemetery was vandalised[1.26].

Various forms of repression caused Olsztyn Jews to leave the city. They headed for Palestine, Królewiec and Berlin where, in greater agglomerations of people, they expected that they may be safer. They even sought asylum in Holland, Czechoslovakia, as it turned out later – in vain.

Although no formal ghetto was established after the outbreak of World War II, Jews were moved into a Jewish old people’s home, in extremely poor living conditions[1.27]. About 130 Olsztyn residents were kept there. In 1941, other Jews from the southern counties of East Prussia joined them. In summer, they worked in the garden and in winter, they cleared the streets of snow etc.

The Jewish community ceased to exist by 1942. On 24th June, some of the prisoners held in the old people's home were probably transported to Mińsk. Two other transports were organised on 2nd and 24th August and left for the ghetto in Theresienstadt[1.28]. It is probable that, in 1942 some of the Jews were shot dead in the forest between Olsztyn and Ostróda.

Approximately 200 people, linked to Olsztyn by birth or residence, are listed among Holocaust victims who were imprisoned and then died from starvation. They were murdered in ghettos in Theresienstadt, Mińsk, Riga, Kaunas, Litzmannstadt (Łódź), Izbica, Warszawa, Piaski as well as Szanghai; in camps in Auschwitz, Treblinka, Sachsenhausen, Dachau, Ravensbrück, Sonnenstein, Sobiborze, Tormersdorf, Kulmhof (Chełmnie), Stutthof, Buchenwald, Raasiku (Reval), and Bergen-Belsen.

Members of the Berlowitz, Danziger, Engel, Hertz, Kaufmann, Koretz, Krigstanc, Krikstanski, Lauman, Levi, Lowski, Mendelsohn, Pommer, Raphaelsohn, Ruben and Wolf families survived this inhumane period of the War.

When hostilities were over, new settlers began arriving in Olsztyn. These also included Jews who had survived the Holocaust and who had returned from the Borderlands (Kressy) of the Second Republic of Poland. There were, repatriates[1.29], people liberated from death camps[1.30] and demobilised soldiers. Warmia was not gesignated as a place of Jewish settlement and the post-War Olsztyn Jewish community was quite small, especially when compared with those in Pomorze Zachodnie/Western Pomerania, Dolny Śląsk/ Lower Silesia and, most of all, Wrocław[1.31].

The Provincial Jewish Committee in Olsztyn was established on 21st January 1946. At the first general meeting, 57 Jews decided to pursue one goal, namely, to provide moral and material assistance (money, food) to the Jewish population and help them organise themselves and to fund jobs”[1.32]. Michał Szaft became its president. From 1946 until, at least, February 1948, a branch of the Health Care Society operated in Olsztyn[1.33].

The Provincial Jewish Committee in Olsztyn dealt with various, mainly public, social, cultural and religious factors, concerning the lives of the Jewish community, which numbered about 200-300 members. In a report dated June 1946, the PJC in Olsztyn stated, Because of the small number of Jews, local committees in our province are absent”[1.34]. Help was offered not only to Olsztyn residents, but also to those who only passed through the city: “In June, 363 Jews travelled through Olsztyn in a transport from Wileńszczyzna (Vilnius Region). They were offered both financial assistance and food. Sixteen people settled in the city. Two families (6 people) left Olsztyn in June”[1.1.34].

The Provincial Jewish Committee strived to restore the pre-War synagogue council. In February 1946, it informed the Olsztyn mayor that “two buildings, comprising the synagogue and seven rooms, which had belonged to the former Jewish religious community, are situated in the Jewish cemetery at 2 Śląska Street. There are also two buildings, belonging to the above-mentioned kehilla, but inhabited by civilians, which are located at 6 Grunwaldzka Street”. The Committee also endeavored to recover the building of the former Jewish lodge at 2 Kajki Street[1.35].

In 1948, the Jewish Religious Congregation had 190 worshippers[1.36].

The Provincial Jewish Committee was active until 1949. The creation of the State of Israel, economic changes and an escalation of Stalinist repression, at the start of the 1950's, caused the Jewish community to decline, with members emigrating mainly to Israel. In 1968, the Olsztyn community was not active in opposition against the “Zionists”[1.37].

 

Bibliography

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Footnotes
  • [1.1] W. Knercer, Cmentarze i zabytki kultury żydowskiej w województwie olsztyńskim, „Borussia”, no. 6, 1993, p. 53; vide K. Forstreuter, Die ersten Juden in Ostpreussen, „Altpreussische Forschungen”, ch. 14, 1937, pp. 42-48.
  • [1.2] W. Knercer, Cmentarze i zabytki kultury żydowskiej w województwie olsztyńskim, „Borussia”, no. 6, 1993, p. 53; S. Achremczyk, Olsztyn w latach 1466-1772, in: Olsztyn 1353 - 2003, ed. S. Achremczyk, W. Ogrodziński, Olsztyn 2003, p. 133.
  • [1.3] J. Jasiński, Olsztyn w latach 1772 - 1918, in: Olsztyn “1353 - 2003, ed. S. Achremczyk, W. Ogrodziński, Olsztyn 2003, p. 228.
  • [1.4] A. Sommerfeld, Juden im Ermland, in: Zur Geschichte und Kultur der Juden in Ost- und Westpreussen, ed. M. Brocke, M. Heitmann, H. Lordick, Hildesheim 2000, pp. 48-49; J. Jasiński, op. cit., p. 228.
  • [1.5] J. Jasiński, Olsztyn w latach 1772 - 1918, w: Olsztyn 1353 - 2003, ed. S. Achremczyk, W. Ogrodziński, Olsztyn 2003, p. 229.
  • [1.6] J. Jasiński, Olsztyn w latach 1772 - 1918, in: Olsztyn 1353 - 2003, ed. S. Achremczyk, W. Ogrodziński, Olsztyn 2003, p. 229.
  • [1.7] A. Sommerfeld, Juden im Ermland, in: Zur Geschichte und Kultur der Juden in Ost- und Westpreussen, ed. M. Brocke, M. Heitmann, H. Lordick, Hildesheim 2000, p. 50.
  • [1.8] A. Sommerfeld, Juden im Ermland, in: Zur Geschichte und Kultur der Juden in Ost- und Westpreussen, ed. M. Brocke, M. Heitmann, H. Lordick, Hildesheim 2000, p. 49.
  • [1.9] J. Jasiński, Olsztyn w latach 1772 - 1918, in: Olsztyn “1353 - 2003, ed. S. Achremczyk, W. Ogrodziński, Olsztyn 2003, p. 232.
  • [1.1.6] J. Jasiński, Olsztyn w latach 1772 - 1918, in: Olsztyn 1353 - 2003, ed. S. Achremczyk, W. Ogrodziński, Olsztyn 2003, p. 229.
  • [1.1.7] A. Sommerfeld, Juden im Ermland, in: Zur Geschichte und Kultur der Juden in Ost- und Westpreussen, ed. M. Brocke, M. Heitmann, H. Lordick, Hildesheim 2000, p. 50.
  • [1.10] R. Bętkowski, Olsztyn jakiego nie znacie. Obraz miasta na dawnej pocztówce, Olsztyn 2003, p. 87.
  • [1.11] J. Chłosta, Znani i nieznani olsztyniacy XIX i XX wieku, Olsztyn 1996, pp. 83-85; R. Kabus, Juden in Ostpreussen, Husum 1998, p. 104
  • [1.12] R. Bętkowski, Olsztyn jakiego nie znacie. Obraz miasta na dawnej pocztówce, Olsztyn 2003, pp. 42, 44-45; C. Grabowska, Olsztyn na starych pocztówkach, Olsztyn 2003
  • [1.13] T. Grygier, Stosunki społeczno – gospodarcze w Olsztynie u schyłku XIX i na początku XX wieku, in: Szkice Olsztyńskie, ed. J. Jasiński, Olsztyn 1967, p. 219; C. Grabowska, Olsztyn na starych pocztówkach, Olsztyn 2003, pp. 108-109, 114-115.
  • [1.14] A. Śliwa, Spacerki po Olsztynie, Olsztyn 1989, p. 43.
  • [1.15] B. Wolski, Eryk Mendelsohn – architekt z Olsztyna, in: Szkice Olsztyńskie, ed. J. Jasiński, Olsztyn 1967, p. 258; J. Jasiński, Olsztyn w latach 1772 - 1918, in: Olsztyn “1353 - 2003, ed. S. Achremczyk, W. Ogrodziński, Olsztyn 2003, p. 231.
  • [1.16] B. Wolski, Eryk Mendelsohn – architekt z Olsztyna, in: Szkice Olsztyńskie, ed. J. Jasiński, Olsztyn 1967, p. 258; R. Kabus, Juden in Ostpreussen, Husum 1998, p. 61; J. Jasiński, Olsztyn w latach 1772 - 1918, in: Olsztyn “1353 - 2003, ed. S. Achremczyk, W. Ogrodziński, Olsztyn 2003, p. 230; R. Bętkowski, Olsztyn jakiego nie znacie. Obraz miasta na dawnej pocztówce, Olsztyn 2003, pp. 35, 44.
  • [1.17] J. Jasiński, Olsztyn w latach 1772 - 1918, in: Olsztyn “1353 - 2003, ed. S. Achremczyk, W. Ogrodziński, Olsztyn 2003, pp. 230-231.
  • [1.18] J. Jasiński, Olsztyn w latach 1772 - 1918, in: Olsztyn “1353 - 2003, ed. S. Achremczyk, W. Ogrodziński, Olsztyn 2003, p. 231.
  • [1.19] B. Koziełło-Poklewski, Narodowosocjalistyczna Niemiecka Partia Robotnicza w Prusach Wschodnich 1921–1933, Olsztyn 1995, p. 133; W. Wrzesiński, Olsztyn w latach 1918 - 1945, in: Olsztyn “1353 - 2003, ed. S. Achremczyk, W. Ogrodziński, Olsztyn 2003, p. 337.
  • [1.20] B. Koziełło-Poklewski, Narodowosocjalistyczna Niemiecka Partia Robotnicza w Prusach Wschodnich 1921–1933, Olsztyn 1995, pp. 134-135.
  • [1.21] B. Koziełło-Poklewski, Narodowosocjalistyczna Niemiecka Partia Robotnicza w Prusach Wschodnich 1921–1933, Olsztyn 1995, p. 134.
  • [1.22] B. Koziełło-Poklewski, Narodowosocjalistyczna Niemiecka Partia Robotnicza w Prusach Wschodnich 1921–1933, Olsztyn 1995, p. 135.
  • [1.23] W. Wrzesiński, Olsztyn w latach 1918 - 1945, in: Olsztyn “1353 - 2003, ed. S. Achremczyk, W. Ogrodziński, Olsztyn 2003, p. 354.
  • [1.24] Geheimnis Staatsarchiv Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Berlin, sign. 240, 39a, as in: A. Sommerfeld, Juden im Ermland, in: Zur Geschichte und Kultur der Juden in Ost- und Westpreussen, ed. M. Brocke, M. Heitmann, H. Lordick, Hildesheim 2000, p. 56; B. Koziełło-Poklewski, Narodowosocjalistyczna Niemiecka Partia Robotnicza w Prusach Wschodnich 1921–1933, Olsztyn 1995, p. 137.
  • [1.25] W. Wrzesiński, Olsztyn w latach 1918 - 1945, in: Olsztyn “1353 - 2003, ed. S. Achremczyk, W. Ogrodziński, Olsztyn 2003, p. 362.
  • [1.26] W. Wrzesiński, Olsztyn w latach 1918 - 1945, in: Olsztyn “1353 - 2003, ed. S. Achremczyk, W. Ogrodziński, Olsztyn 2003, p. 367.
  • [1.27] A. Śliwa, Spacerki po Olsztynie, Olsztyn 1989, p. 86.
  • [1.28] W. Wrzesiński, Olsztyn w latach 1918 - 1945, in: Olsztyn “1353 - 2003, ed. S. Achremczyk, W. Ogrodziński, Olsztyn 2003, p. 396.
  • [1.29] Among others from Buchara, Saratów, Dniepropietrowsk, Vilnius region – APO (State Archive in Olsztyn), Provincial Jewish Committee in Olsztyn, sign. 42/487/18, List of Repatriates (1946).
  • [1.30] Among others from Dachau – APO (State Archive in Olsztyn), Provincial Jewish Committee in Olsztyn, sign. 42/487/18, List of Repatriates (1946).
  • [1.31] T. Jaworski, Ludność żydowska w Polsce zachodniej i północnej w latach 1944 - 1956, in: Ziemie zachodnie i północne Polski w okresie stalinowskim, ed. C. Osękowski, Zielona Góra 1999, pp. 248-254; M. Hejger, Przekształcenia narodowościowe na Ziemiach Zachodnich i Północnych w latach 1945 - 1956 – próba bilansu, w: Ziemie Odzyskane / Ziemie Zachodnie i Północne 1945 - 2005. 60 lat w granicach państwa polskiego, ed. A. Sakson, Poznań 2006, p. 351-353.
  • [1.32] Report of the activity of the Provincial Jewish Committee in Olsztyn in the first half of 1946, APO, Provincial Jewish Committee in Olsztyn, sign. 42/487/8, Reports of the activity of the Provincial Jewish Committee (1946-1949).
  • [1.33] APO, Provincial Jewish Committee in Olsztyn, sign. 42/487/19, Health Care Society.
  • [1.34] Report of the activity of the Provincial Jewish Committee in Olsztyn in June 1946, APO, Provincial Jewish Committee in Olsztyn, sign. 42/487/8, Reports of the activity of the Provincial Jewish Committee (1946 - 1949).
  • [1.1.34] Report of the activity of the Provincial Jewish Committee in Olsztyn in June 1946, APO, Provincial Jewish Committee in Olsztyn, sign. 42/487/8, Reports of the activity of the Provincial Jewish Committee (1946 - 1949).
  • [1.35] APO, Provincial Jewish Committee in Olsztyn, sign. 42/487/17, Real estate belonging to to the Jewish Kehilla.
  • [1.36] APO, Provincial Jewish Committee in Olsztyn, sign. 42/487/17, Real estate belonging to to the Jewish Kehilla; A. Sakson, Stosunki narodowościowe na Warmii i Mazurach 1945 - 1997, Poznań 1998, p. 152.
  • [1.37] A. Sakson, Stosunki narodowościowe na Warmii i Mazurach 1945 - 1997, Poznań 1998, p. 152.