First Jewish settlers appeared in Mława in the 15th century. In 1507, a tax connected to the coronation of King Zygmunt I Stary was imposed on the local Jews. Jewish presence can be verified by the the Płock chapter’s charge against the local barber-surgeon, Ambroży Broze, in 1551 [1.1]. The accusations were that “he disdains the sacraments of the church, does not take part in Sunday masses, but celebrates the Sabbath with the Jews and used to go to their synagogue to Jewish services” and that “he converted a lot of people to Judaism”[1.2]

In the second half of the 16th century, Jewish communities in the Mazowsze region – including the one in Mława – faced a wave of charges of ritual murder of Christian children and of desecrating the Host. [1.3].

In 1564, there were 429 houses in Mława, five of which belonged to Jews.

Local Jews were administratively subordinate to the Ciechanów kehilla until the mid-18th century. As a result of the disputes between the Christian and Jewish townspeople, the Committee of Good Order had to intervene, and in 1776, expelled all Jews from Mława. However, the Jews were forced to leave the town not only because of the pressure put on them by the administration, but also due to a fire that destroyed a significant number of the buildings[1.4].

At the beginning of the 19th century, Jews started to resettle in Mława. Not even one Jew was registered in the town in 1790. However, in 1808, there were 137 Jews living in Mława. The newcomers arrived mostly from the nearby towns.

The first to settle in Mława were the families of Aron Boruch, Dawid Majer, Salomon Majer, Abram Szmul and Józef Abram Fadatowicz. The authorities allowed Aron Boruch’s family to settle in Mława in 1798, but when the burghers opposed it, he was forced to leave the town, and his goods were taken over by the local authorities[1.5].

Towards the end of the 18th century, the first wooden synagogue was built in Mława[1.6].

When Mława was included in the Duchy of Warsaw and the Kingdom of Poland, the authorities decided to create separate Jewish districts in bigger towns[1.7]. In 1824, one such district was created in Mława. It was located between Warszawska, Bóżnicza and Ostatnia Streets. However, the resettlement of 140 Jewish families was troublesome. There were barely five descent houses decent in that district. Finally, in 1828, the Jewish district was extended to Kozia and Szewska Streets. Nevertheless, many Jewish families still lived outside the district. In mid-1829, there were 103 families living within the Jewish district in homes they rented or owned, as well as 124 families still lived in the town. Eventually, after countless deadline extensions, in 1833, the central authorities stopped attempting to relocate the Jews to the district[1.8].

Most of the Jewish residents of Mława were in trade. In 1823, 20 of 37 Jews were in different kinds of trade: six in salt, three in leathers, and eight in small goods[1.9]. The Jews not involved in trade made their living mainly as craftsmen – mainly tailors, shoemakers, and bakers. In 1855, thirteen people were wageworkers. Very few people had other jobs – e.g.: leasing the right to make and sell liquor. Hersz Malowańczyk held a monopoly in this field from 1856[1.10].

Because Mława was located near the border of Prussia, many Jews were involved in smuggling goods. In December 1856, Jankiel Rubin Nickin's denunciation allowed the authorities to intercept 50 poods (819 kg) of smuggled tea – the good purchased by Abram Icek Wejnberg, Chaim Soldowski, Gedalie Richter and Izrael Drezner[1.11]

Smuggling continued to be popular over the years, and Mława's experts in this field were Fajwel Domb, Jankiel Golotzer and Lewek Wagoner. Smuggled objects included golden watches, diamonds, and silk. Horses were also marketable. The profession of a horse thief was passed on from father to son in the Wizer, Frajdenberg, and Richter families. Josef Tomkiewicz earned a living as a horse thief as well[1.12].

The Jews of north Mazovia, including those of Mława, profited from delivering goods to the Russian army, which was stationed there. [1.13].

Trade in Mława was revived after a railway line from Mława to Nasielsk and Ciechanów (the Vistula Railway) was opened in 1877. Wiur and Tikuskler opened hotels and restaurants near the railway station[1.14].

During the interwar period, the majority of industrial companies in Masovia belonged to Jews. In Mława, the owners of steam mills were Moszek Czarka, Leder, Mondrzak, and Perlmutter; an ink factory belonged to I. Bocian. In the town there was also A. Kleiner’s factory that produced cigarette filters and boxes, as well as cement plants owned by A. Rozenberg, Aotki and Krygier[1.15].

In the nineteenth century, the Jews of the Kingdom of Poland were divided into the Orthodox (Misnagdim) and Hasidim[1.16]. Conflicts along religious lines also occurred in Mława. During a wedding reception, on 17 April 1858, there was an argument between the followers of traditional Judaism and the Hasidim, which turned into a fight and the military police had to intervene[1.17].

During this period, Wolf Icek Lipszyc, grandson of state Warsaw Rabbi Salomon, was the rabbi of Mława. He took the office in 1838 and was dismissed in 1860 presumably for being a financially corrupt member of a funeral society[1.18]. From 1880 to 1891, the office was held by Rabbi Israel Icek Klingier, and by Icek Mojżesz Segałowicz from 1892 until the outbreak of World War II [1.19].

In the mid sixteenth century, there was a synagogue in Mława[1.20]. In the nineteenth century, the building partially made of brick and clay and covered with a tile roof, was in poor condition. On 27 May 1817, the authorities ordered its destruction. Without any support of the Jewish kehilla, the local Jews erected a new synagogue near Kozia and Szewska Streets. This time, the Chief Builder of the District confirmed that it was safe[1.21]. During World War II in September 1939, the Germans burnt down the building. The ruins were destroyed in 1942-1943; the site was partially rebuilt after the war[1.22].

During the November Uprising, many Jews of Mława supported the Russians because – similar to those in other Masovian towns – they doubted the success of revolutions for independence and the victory over tsarist Russia. Another factor that discouraged the Jews from helping the insurgents was their behavior in Mazovia. The rebels’ leaders imposed contributions on the Jews and stole goods, shoes and wine. In Mława as well as Różan and Nasielsk, these conditions led to an open revolt, which was suppressed by Polish soldiers[1.23].

In the late nineteenth century, half of the Jewish population of Masovia lived in extreme poverty, which eventually caused emigration. Emigrants’ main destinations were East Prussia in the 1880s and the United States in the early 1900s. Some were leaving in order to find a better life, while others profited by transporting people over the green border or acting as agents recruiting those willing to leave. Many Jews in Mława also left their hometown during this period[1.24].

At the end of the nineteenth century, the Zionist movement was born and found supporters in Masovia. In Mława, the first Zionist club was created in 1904 by Dawid Opatowski, Tanhum Alter, Abraham Rybak, and Chaim Makowski[1.25]

At the beginning of the twentieth century, a student of the Mława yeshiva Berisz Perlmutter was a Zionist activist. He opened a musical and literary society called “Ha-Zomir”, whose cultural activity was opposed by some Jews in Mława. The rabbi deplored Ha-Zomir’s dances at which both girls and boys were in attendance. There was a failed attempt to force Perlmutter to stop the activity by not allowing him into the prayer house of the Aleksander Hasidim [1.26].

A branch of the Agudat Israel organization was active in Mława too. In 1928, its activists created a religious school for girls[1.27].

Branches of the Trumpeldor Jewish Youth Organization "Betar" were formed in Mazovia, including Mława, in 1926-1927. A Zionist Youth Organization that had ties with the Revisionist Zionism, Betar ran a military training for Jewish youth and elders, preparing to fight for the Jewish state in Palestine[1.28]. On the other hand, the Mława branch of the “Mizrachi” Zionist-Orthodox Organization was established by Pinchas Mondri in 1929[1.29].

The results of the kehilla board elections in 1924 showed a considerable support for the Orthodox and Zionist groups in Mława. The representatives of the Aguda and the Zionists won six seats each. In the last election before World War II in 1936, Aguda won five seats; the Bund, Mizrachi and the Religious Craftsmen won two seats each; and the Zionists won one seat[1.30].

As in many other towns in Poland, the Jews in Mława were also active in public life. In 1916, there were 11 representatives of the Jewish community on the 24-member town council. They were Berek Perlmutter, Moses Grünberg, Chaim Reder, Leo Heinsdorf, Enoch Paca, Loser Kohn, Abraham Rybak, Chaim Perła, Salomon Alter, Jacob Lederberg, and Chaim Schwarz[1.31].

In 1928, the 24-member Town Council had eight Jews. Aguda won three seats, whereas the Bund, Poale Zion, General Zionists, Mizrachi, and the trade and craft associations won one seat each[1.32]. However, in 1934, only three Jews won seats[1.33].

In the early twentieth century, the aformentioned Ha-Zomir played an important role in Mława’s Jewish cultural life. Its activists formed a choir, a mandolin band and an amateur theatre group run by Rachela Golomb (Gołąb)[1.34].

A library, which was set up at the headquarters of Ha-Zomir, had books in Yiddish, Hebrew and Russian. Figures such as Icchok Leybush Perets, Hillel Zeitlin, Dr. Aleksander Mukdoni, Dr. Meir Klumel, Szlomo Zemah and Shalom Asch gave speeches in the library. Talks were also given by local activists, including Berisz Perlmutter, Mosze Merker, Binem Warszawsk, or Fajwel Opatowski[1.35]

Jewish children were taught in numerous cheders, under Baruch Melamed, Dawid Gordon, Rafael Gutman and others. These schools were different form each other in terms of space and comfort of the rooms as well as educational methods, subjects and times of study. The most modern cheder was the one led by Rafael Gutman, who later left Mława. He moved to Warsaw, where he became a respected and well known teacher. In contrast, the cheder was run by Dawid Gordon and who inspired great reluctance of the town’s Hasidim, who thought that sending their children to that cheder could make their children lose faith[1.36].

In 1917, older youth could study in a mixed-sex junior high school established by Zionists Berisz Perlmutter, Chaim Elijah Perl, Motteh Greenberg, Aks Mendl and Koppl Pizicz. Ten years later, the activists of the "Beit Yosef" movement formed a yeshiva in Mława. Unfortunately it was closed after only a couple of years because of the lack of money [1.37].

During the interwar period, publications were printed in Yiddish in Mława, but did not last long. Publications included: Mławer Najes, Unzer Echo, Unzer Tribune, Unzer Kampf, and Unzer Krajer[1.38]. Unzer Tribune was Aguda's newspaper. Its team included Zeew Ajronowicz, Aleksandrowicz, Mosze Dawid Frenkiel, Jakob Gebreter, Arie Grosbard, Margulis, Abraham Mundri, Hersz Mundri, Pinchas Mundri, Aron Perlmuter, Gerszon Rajngwircz, and Wolarski[1.39].

In Mława, there were four Jewish libraries: the one owned by the Zionist Organization (established in 1917), by Ha-Shomer HaTzair (established in 1926), Cultural and Educational Organization (established in 1930) and I.L. Perec "Frayheyt" (established in 1926)[1.40].

On the eve of World War II, the residents of Mława, including several dozen Jewish soldiers, were working at building fortifications in the outskirts of the town. Many of them were killed during a battle which took place in Mława[1.41].

In September 1939, many Jewish people left Mława and other Masovian towns and headed east and towards Warsaw. In October and November 1939, when the Germans entered Mława, many Jews fled to the USSR[1.42].

On 8 October, the Nazis incorporated Mława (along with a part of north Masovia) into the Reich. Reich territories were supposed to be "Judenfrei" so the Germans immediately began deportations[1.43]. In December, as Jews living in Mława were displaced, refugees from other towns soon replaced them [1.44].

On Yom Kippur in 1939, the synagogue in Mława burned down. The Germans forced the Jews to watch the fire[1.45].

In December 1939, 3,000 Jews were taken to the concentration camp in Działdowo[1.46]. Over the course of the year, approximately 4,000 Jewish people were sent from Mława to Biała Podlaska, Kosowo Lackie, Winnica, and Michałów Lubelski[1.47]. Mentally ill or disabled people were killed on the spot[1.48].

In December 1940, the Germans established a ghetto in Mława. It occupied an area of about 30 hectares and was located in the area bounded by Warszawska, Długa, Płocka and Szewska Streets. Opened in May 1941, it was surrounded by a brick wall and barbed wire. Its inhabitants were mostly Jews resettled from other towns such as Szreńsk, Drobin, Radzanowo, Zieluń, Maków Mazowiecki, Przasnysz, Kuczbork, Bieżuń and also Lidzbark, Rypin and Lipno. In 1940-1941, there were about 5,000-6,000 people in the ghetto in total[1.49].

In 1940, a slave labor camp was formed in the town as well. The Germans used the ritual bath on Narutowicza Street to intern about 300 forced laborers: Jews, Poles and, later, also Russians. The prisoners were forced to perform public service work and were sent to build a military camp in the nearby village of Nosarzewo[1.50]. Some of the Jews of Mława were also sent to a prison-camp in Pomiechówek, where prisoners were treated with particular brutality[1.51].

The first president of the Judenrat Eliezer Perlmuter was arrested by the Germans in January 1942 and killed during an interrogation. Paltiel Ceglo succeeded him as president until he too was imprisoned. The post was then taken over by Mendel Czarka. Herman Mordowicz was chairman of the Jewish Court and Menache Dawidson was Chief of the Jewish Police[1.52].

Due to bribes paid by the Mława Judenrat, the Germans turned a blind eye to the smuggling that was going on in the ghetto. A library was run by Dawid Krystal. There was also an illegal radio receiver in the ghetto. Doctor Tiefenbrun was responsible for treating the inhabitants, and saw to it that they were vaccinated against typhus. After his death, Józef Witwicki continued his work[1.53].

The liquidation of the ghetto was preceded by murders of individual people. For instance, on 18 April 1942, four people were killed: Mojżesz Bojman, Dawid Cymerman, Abram Ickowicza and Kalman Lipski[1.54].

In 1942, Menache Dawidson was sent to Auschwitz, whereas 12 Jewish police officers were hanged. They were: Mojsze Romaner, Lejb Romaner, Hern Baumgold, Gdajla Lichtensztajn, Chaim Bursztyn, Mordka Wolarski, Chaim Soldański, Symcha Cwajgaft, Szmul Korzenny, Chaim Solarski, Wytenberg, Chaim Perelmuter, and Izrael Gutman. After Dawidson, a man with criminal record Szolem Gutman became Chief of the Jewish Police[1.55].

In the 1942 German "List of Special Operations" the following note concerning summarized the crime and those that followed: "During the execution, the ghetto’s population was arrogant and defiant, so in order to restore order a second execution was performed on 17 June 1942 in which 50 Jews were killed"[1.56]. Among the murdered were Wolf Abramowicz, Wolf Artensztejn, Lejb Borko, Lejb Cegla, Mordka Cegla, Duczyminer, Dragon, Gedale Fefer, Abram Feldhajn, Noach Flajszer, Iser Gibarski, Jakub Goldberg, Hersz Goldwaser, Matys Grinberg, Chaim Igłowicz, Boruch Jul, Wolf Jabłonowski, Jakób Kaczor, Izrael Kohn, Menachem Kołnierz, Rubin Kosobucki, Jakub Malowańczyk, Fiszel Minc, Josek Mitgang, Iser Niborski, Oblozyner, Ostaszewer, Icchak Purzycki, Rajchgold, Dawid Rozenberg, Jechil Josef Szczepkowski, Lejb Szczepkowski, Mojsze Szpiro, Szulmirski, Izrael Warszawiak, Lejb Warszawiak, and Rubin Wolarski, Mława cantor’s son-in-law[1.57].

By the end of 1942, the ghetto in Mława ceased to exist. Approximately 6,000-7,000 people were deported to extermination camps. On 10 November 1942, the elderly and sick were deported to Treblinka and those who remained were moved to Auschwitz in three transports: on 13 and 17 November and 10 December[1.58].

Many Polish residents of Mława, who were either members of organizations or ordinary citizens, were involved in helping the Jews during the war—e.g.: Dr. Józef Witwicki (Home Army), who gave shelter to the Rosenberg family of three, Dr. Michał Łojewski (Home Army commandant in Mława), Dr. Adrian Laskowski (Home Army), Ignacy Nowicki (NSZ – National Armed Forces), watchman Helmut Hinz, gendarmes Antoni Hehryng and Naguszewski as well as Maria Wróblewska – the Home Army spies in the ghetto and in prison[1.59]. Jerzy Piotr Śliwczyński helped his classmates: Ella Perkel, Celina Czech, Bieżuńska, Jakub Kleńc and his wife and daughter Ruta, Dr. Józef Makowski and his wife Gucia and daughter. The pre-war director of the Bank of Mława Artur Pieńkiewicz was sent to a concentration camp where he was killed as a punishment for helping Jews. Jews were supported by the Knapiński, Lanckowski, Męzik, Jankowski, Tański, Pogorzelski, Miłobędzki, Cytowski, Dobrzyński, Hausman and Falczak families. Food was provided by Stanisława Zajcowa, a grocery store owner and Maria Szubertowa and her employees[1.60]. Rev. Dean Władysław Maron, Rev. Władysław Celmerowski, Rev. Tadeusz Trzciński, and Rev. Leonard Perkowski helped to rescue Jewish children by issuing baptism certificates for them[1.61].

Few survivors returned to Mława after the war. 20 people registered with a Jewish committee [1.62]. Most of them soon left Mława. One of the last Jews in Mława was Józef Poznański, who died in 1956[1.63].

 

Bibliography:

  • P. Fijałkowski, „Żydzi w miastach Mazowsza w XIII–XVIII w.” (Jews in the Towns of Mazovia in the 13th-18th Centuries), [in:] Mazowieckie miasteczka na przestrzeni wieków (Mazovian Towns Over the Centuries), ed. A. Stawarz, (Warszawa, 1999).
  • Jewish Mlawa; Its History, Development, Destruction (Mława, Poland), ed. D. Shtokfish, (Tel Aviv, 1984) [online] http://www.jewishgen.org/yizkor/mlawa/mla532.html [Accessed: 11.09.2014]
  • M. Grynberg, Żydzi w rejencji ciechanowskiej 19391942 (Jews in the Ciechanów Administrative District), (Warszawa, 1984).
  • K. Jakubowski, „Menora”, Wspólnota 1999, no. 45 (504).
  • “Mława”, [in:] The Encyclopedia of Jewish Life Before and During the Holocaust, eds. Sh. Spector, G. Wigoder, vol. 2, (New York, 2001), pp. 832–834.
  • “Mława”, [in:] The Yad Vashem Encyclopedia of the Ghettos during the Holocaust, eds. G. Miron, Sh. Shulani, vol. 1, (Jerusalem, 2009), pp. 487–489.
  • SzczepańskiJ., Społeczność żydowska Mazowsza w XIXXX wieku (Jewish Community of Mazovia in the 19th and 20th Centuries), (Pułtusk, 2005).

 

 

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Footnotes

  • [1.1] J. Szczepański, Społeczność żydowska Mazowsza w XIX–XX wieku, (Pułtusk, 2005), p. 16.
  • [1.2] Quoted after: P. Fijałkowski, „Żydzi w miastach Mazowsza w XIII–XVIII w.” (Jews in the Towns of Mazovia in the 13th-18th Centuries), [in:] Mazowieckie miasteczka na przestrzeni wieków (Mazovian Towns Over the Centuries), ed. A. Stawarz, (Warszawa, 1999).
  • [1.3] J. Szczepański, Społeczność żydowska Mazowsza w XIX–XX wieku (Jewish Community in Mazovia in the 19th and 20th Centuries), (Pułtusk, 2005), p. 17.
  • [1.4] J. Szczepański, Społeczność żydowska Mazowsza w XIX–XX wieku (Jewish Community in Mazovia in the 19th and 20th Centuries), (Pułtusk, 2005), p. 26.
  • [1.5] J. Szczepański, Społeczność żydowska Mazowsza w XIX–XX wieku (Jewish Community in Mazovia in the 19th and 20th Centuries), , (Pułtusk, 2005), p. 35.
  • [1.6] Szczepański J., Społeczność żydowska Mazowsza w XIX–XX wieku (Jewish Community in Mazovia in the 19th and 20th Centuries), (Pułtusk, 2005), p. 37.
  • [1.7] J. Szczepański, Społeczność żydowska Mazowsza w XIX–XX wieku (Jewish Community in Mazovia in the 19th and 20th Centuries), (Pułtusk, 2005), p. 52.
  • [1.8] J. Szczepański, Społeczność żydowska Mazowsza w XIX–XX wieku (Jewish Community in Mazovia in the 19th and 20th Centuries), (Pułtusk, 2005), pp. 56–57.
  • [1.9] J. Szczepański, Społeczność żydowska Mazowsza w XIX–XX wieku (Jewish Community in Mazovia in the 19th and 20th Centuries), (Pułtusk, 2005), p. 68.
  • [1.10] J. Szczepański, Społeczność żydowska Mazowsza w XIX–XX wieku (Jewish Community in Mazovia in the 19th and 20th Centuries), (Pułtusk, 2005), pp. 72–75.
  • [1.11] J. Szczepański, Społeczność żydowska Mazowsza w XIX–XX wieku (Jewish Community in Mazovia in the 19th and 20th Centuries), (Pułtusk, 2005), p. 79.
  • [1.12] J. Szczepański, Społeczność żydowska Mazowsza w XIX–XX wieku (Jewish Community in Mazovia in the 19th and 20th Centuries), (Pułtusk, 2005), p. 153; see: The Border, [in:] Jewish Mlawa; Its History, Development, Destruction (Mława, Poland), Mlawa Ha-Yehudit; Koroteha, HitpatKhuta, Kilyona, Di Yidishe Mlawe; Geshikhte, Oyfshtand, Umkum, ed. D. Shtokfish, Tel Aviv 1984, http://www.jewishgen.org/yizkor/mlawa/mla465.html [Accessed: 11.09.2014].
  • [1.13] J. Szczepański, Społeczność żydowska Mazowsza w XIX–XX wieku (Jewish Community in Mazovia in the 19th and 20th Centuries), (Pułtusk, 2005), p. 144.
  • [1.14] J. Szczepański, Społeczność żydowska Mazowsza w XIX–XX wieku (Jewish Community in Mazovia in the 19th and 20th Centuries), (Pułtusk, 2005), p. 140.
  • [1.15] J. Szczepański, Społeczność żydowska Mazowsza w XIX–XX wieku (Jewish Community in Mazovia in the 19th and 20th Centuries), (Pułtusk, 2005), p. 331.
  • [1.16] J. Szczepański, Społeczność żydowska Mazowsza w XIX–XX wieku (Jewish Community in Mazovia in the 19th and 20th Centuries), (Pułtusk, 2005), p. 159.
  • [1.17] J. Szczepański, Społeczność żydowska Mazowsza w XIX–XX wieku (Jewish Community in Mazovia in the 19th and 20th Centuries), (Pułtusk, 2005), p. 91.
  • [1.18] J. Szczepański, Społeczność żydowska Mazowsza w XIX–XX wieku (Jewish Community in Mazovia in the 19th and 20th Centuries), (Pułtusk, 2005), pp. 95–96.
  • [1.19] Szczepański  J., Społeczność żydowska Mazowsza w XIX–XX wieku (Jewish Community in Mazovia in the 19th and 20th Centuries), (Pułtusk, 2005), p. 163.
  • [1.20] P. Fijałkowski, "Żydzi w miastach Mazowsza w XIII–XVIII w.", [in:] Mazowieckie miasteczka na przestrzeni wieków, ed. A. Stawarz, (Warszawa, 1999), p. 63.
  • [1.21] Archiwum Główne Akt Dawnych, Centralne Władze Wyznaniowe Królestwa Polskiego (Central Archives of Historical Records, Central Religious Authorities of the Kingdom of Poland ), file no. 1441, p. 91.
  • [1.22] Archiwum Akt Nowych, Urząd ds. Wyznań w Warszawie (Polish Central Archives of Modern Records, Office of Religious Affairs), file no. 132/282, cards: 15, 18.
  • [1.23] J. Szczepański, Społeczność żydowska Mazowsza w XIX–XX wieku (Jewish Community in Mazovia in the 19th and 20th Centuries), (Pułtusk, 2005), pp. 120–121.
  • [1.24] J. Szczepański, Społeczność żydowska Mazowsza w XIX–XX wieku (Jewish Community in Mazovia in the 19th and 20th Centuries), (Pułtusk, 2005), pp. 150–152.
  • [1.25] J. Szczepański, Społeczność żydowska Mazowsza w XIX–XX wieku (Jewish Community in Mazovia in the 19th and 20th Centuries), (Pułtusk, 2005), p. 180; see: Jonis Z., The Old Home Town, [w:] Jewish Mlawa; Its History, Development, Destruction (Mława, Poland), Mlawa Ha-Yehudit; Koroteha, HitpatKhuta, Kilyona, Di Yidishe Mlawe; Geshikhte, Oyfshtand, Umkum, ed. D. Shtokfish, Tel Aviv 1984; http://www.jewishgen.org/yizkor/mlawa/mla449.html [Accessed: 11.09.2014].
  • [1.26] Z. Jonis, The Old Home Town, [in:] Jewish Mlawa; Its History, Development, Destruction (Mława, Poland), Mlawa Ha-Yehudit; Koroteha, HitpatKhuta, Kilyona, Di Yidishe Mlawe; Geshikhte, Oyfshtand, Umkum, ed. D. Shtokfish D., Tel Aviv 1984; http://www.jewishgen.org/yizkor/mlawa/mla449.html [Accessed: 11.09.2014].
  • [1.27] J. Szczepański, Społeczność żydowska Mazowsza w XIX–XX wieku (Jewish Community in Mazovia in the 19th and 20th Centuries), (Pułtusk, 2005), p. 254.
  • [1.28] J. Szczepański, Społeczność żydowska Mazowsza w XIX–XX wieku (Jewish Community in Mazovia in the 19th and 20th Centuries), (Pułtusk, 2005), p. 265.
  • [1.29] J. Szczepański, Społeczność żydowska Mazowsza w XIX–XX wieku (Jewish Community in Mazovia in the 19th and 20th Centuries), (Pułtusk, 2005), p. 255.
  • [1.30] J. Szczepański, Społeczność żydowska Mazowsza w XIX–XX wieku (Jewish Community in Mazovia in the 19th and 20th Centuries), (Pułtusk, 2005), p. 308.
  • [1.31] J. Szczepański, Społeczność żydowska Mazowsza w XIX–XX wieku (Jewish Community in Mazovia in the 19th and 20th Centuries), (Pułtusk, 2005), p. 212.
  • [1.32] J. Szczepański, Społeczność żydowska Mazowsza w XIX–XX wieku (Jewish Community in Mazovia in the 19th and 20th Centuries), (Pułtusk, 2005), p. 298.
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  • [1.47] Grynberg M., Żydzi w rejencji ciechanowskiej 1939–1942, Warszawa 1984, pp. 95–96.
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  • [1.49] J. Szczepański, Społeczność żydowska Mazowsza w XIX–XX wieku (Jewish Community in Mazovia in the 19th and 20th Centuries), (Pułtusk, 2005), pp. 429–430.
  • [1.50] M. Grynberg, Żydzi w rejencji ciechanowskiej 1939–1942, (Warszawa, 1984), p. 78.
  • [1.51] See: M. Grynberg, Żydzi w rejencji ciechanowskiej 1939–1942, (Warszawa, 1984), pp. 79–88.
  • [1.52] J. Szczepański, Społeczność żydowska Mazowsza w XIX–XX wieku (Jewish Community of Mazovia in the 19th and 20th Centuries), (Pułtusk, 2005), p. 430.
  • [1.53] J. Szczepański, Społeczność żydowska Mazowsza w XIX–XX wieku (Jewish Community of Mazovia in the 19th and 20th Centuries), (Pułtusk, 2005), p. 430.
  • [1.54] K. Jakubowski, Menora, „Wspólnota”, no. 45 (504), 06.11.1999, p. 29.
  • [1.55] J. Szczepański, Społeczność żydowska Mazowsza w XIX–XX wieku (Jewish Community of Mazovia in the 19th and 20th Centuries), (Pułtusk, 2005), pp. 430–431.
  • [1.56] Quoted after: M. Grynberg, Żydzi w rejencji ciechanowskiej 1939–1942, (Warszawa, 1984), p. 72.
  • [1.57] M. Grynberg, Żydzi w rejencji ciechanowskiej 1939–1942, (Warszawa, 1984), pp. 72, 155–156.
  • [1.58] J. Szczepański, Społeczność żydowska Mazowsza w XIX–XX wieku (Jewish Community of Mazovia in the 19th and 20th Centuries), (Pułtusk, 2005), p. 432.
  • [1.59] J. Szczepański, Społeczność żydowska Mazowsza w XIX–XX wieku, (Pułtusk, 2005), pp. 488–490.
  • [1.60] J. Szczepański, Społeczność żydowska Mazowsza w XIX–XX wieku (Jewish Community in Mazovia in the 19th and 20th Centuries), (Pułtusk, 2005), pp. 488–489.
  • [1.61] J. Szczepański, Społeczność żydowska Mazowsza w XIX–XX wieku (Jewish Community in Mazovia in the 19th and 20th Centuries), (Pułtusk, 2005), p. 491.
  • [1.62] A. Skibińska, "Powroty ocalałych" (Return of the Survivors), [in:] Prowincja noc. Życie i zagłada Żydów w dystrykcie warszawskim (The Night Province. Life and Extermination of Jews in the Warsaw District), eds. B. Engelking,J. Leociak, D. Libionka, (Warszawa, 2007), p. 592
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